By A. Sigmor. Columbia University. 2019.
Many injections are prescribed which are unnecessarily dangerous and inconvenient 130mg malegra dxt. Nearly always they are much more expensive than tablets 130 mg malegra dxt, capsules and other dosage forms malegra dxt 130 mg. For every injection the prescriber should strike a balance between the medical need on the one hand and the risk of side effects malegra dxt 130mg, inconvenience and cost on the other . The person giving the injection must know what these effects are , and must also know how to react if something goes wrong . This means that if you do not give the injection yourself you must make sure that it is done by someone who is qualified . A prescriber is also responsible for how waste is disposed of after the injection . The needle and sometimes the syringe are contaminated waste and special measures are needed for their disposal . If you make housecalls, check the drugs in your medical bag regularly to make sure that they have not passed the expiry date. Drug Make sure that the vial or ampoule contains the right drug in the right strength. Sterility During the whole preparation procedure, material should be kept sterile. Once the injection has been given take care not to prick yourself or somebody else. Remove the liquid from the neck of the ampoule by flicking it or swinging it fast in a downward spiralling movement. Use a syringe with a volume of twice the required amount of drug or solution and add the needle. Aspirate briefly; if blood appears: withdraw needle, replace it with a new one, if possible, and start again from point 4. Uncover the area to be injected (lateral upper quadrant major gluteal muscle, lateral side of upper leg, deltoid muscle). Stabilize the vein by pulling the skin taut in the longitudinal direction of the vein. Check for pain, swelling, hematoma; if in doubt whether you are still in the vein aspirate again! Step 8 Step 9 Steps 11 to 14 131 Guide to Good Prescribing 132 Annex 4 133 Guide to Good Prescribing 134 . Priority conditions are selected on the basis of current and estimated future public health relevance, and potential for safe and cost‐effective treatment. The complementary list presents essential medicines for priority diseases, for which specialized diagnostic or monitoring facilities, and/or specialist medical care, and/or specialist training are needed. In case of doubt medicines may also be listed as complementary on the basis of consistent higher costs or less attractive cost‐ effectiveness in a variety of settings. The square box symbol () is primarily intended to indicate similar clinical performance within a pharmacological class. The listed medicine should be the example of the class for which there is the best evidence for effectiveness and safety. In some cases, this may be the first medicine that is licensed for marketing; in other instances, subsequently licensed compounds may be safer or more effective. Where there is no difference in terms of efficacy and safety data, the listed medicine should be the one that is generally available at the lowest price, based on international drug price information sources. National lists should not use a similar symbol and should be specific in their final selection, which would depend on local availability and price. The a symbol indicates that there is an age or weight restriction on use of the medicine; details for each medicine can be found in Table 1. Where the [c] symbol is placed next to the complementary list it signifies that the medicine(s) require(s) specialist diagnostic or monitoring facilities, and/or specialist medical care, and/or specialist training for their use in children. Where the [c] symbol is placed next to an individual medicine or strength of medicine it signifies that there is a specific indication for restricting its use to children. The presence of an entry on the Essential Medicines List carries no assurance as to pharmaceutical quality. It is the responsibility of the relevant national or regional drug regulatory authority to ensure that each product is of appropriate pharmaceutical quality (including stability) and that, when relevant, different products are interchangeable. Medicines and dosage forms are listed in alphabetical order within each section and there is no implication of preference for one form over another. Standard treatment guidelines should be consulted for information on appropriate dosage forms. The main terms used for dosage forms in the Essential Medicines List can be found in Table 1. Definitions of many of these terms and pharmaceutical quality requirements applicable to the different categories are published in the current edition of The International Pharmacopoeia http://www. Injection for spinal anaesthesia: 5% (hydrochloride) in lidocaine 2‐ mL ampoule to be mixed with 7. Injection: 5 mg/ mL (sulfate) in 20‐ mL ampoule or 1 g/ fomepizole mL (base) in 1. Solution for oromucosal administration: 5 mg/mL; 10 mg/mL midazolam Ampoule*: 1 mg/ mL; 10 mg/mL *for buccal administration when solution for oromucosal administration is not available Injection: 200 mg/ mL (sodium). Injection: 100 mg/ mL in 4‐ mL ampoule; 100 mg/ mL valproic acid (sodium valproate) in 10‐ mL ampoule. Meropenem is indicated for the treatment of meningitis and is licensed for use in children over the age of 3 months. Powder for oral liquid: 125 mg/5 mL (as stearate or erythromycin estolate or ethyl succinate). Injection: 80 mg + 16 mg/ mL in 5‐ mL ampoule; 80 mg + 16 mg/ mL in 10‐ mL ampoule. Injection for intravenous administration: 2 mg/ mL in 300 mL bag linezolid Powder for oral liquid: 100 mg/5 mL, Tablet: 400 mg; 600 mg Granules: 4 g in sachet. Scored tablets can be used in children and therefore can be considered for inclusion in the listing of tablets, provided that adequate quality products are available. Ritonavir is recommended for use in combination as a pharmacological booster, and not as an antiretroviral in its own right. Tablet: 75 mg; 400 mg; 600 mg; 800 mg darunavir a a >3 years Oral liquid: 400 mg + 100 mg/5 mL. Tablet: 200 mg + 300 mg (disoproxil fumarate emtricitabine + tenofovir equivalent to 245 mg tenofovir disoproxil). Tablet: 30 mg + 50 mg + 60 mg [c]; 150 mg + 200 mg lamivudine + nevirapine + zidovudine + 300 mg. Injection: 100 mg/ mL, 1 vial = 30 mL or 30%, sodium stibogluconate or meglumine antimoniate equivalent to approximately 8. Injection: ampoules, containing 60 mg anhydrous artesunic acid with a separate ampoule of 5% sodium bicarbonate solution. Rectal dosage form: 50 mg [c]; 200 mg capsules (for pre‐referral treatment of severe malaria only; artesunate* patients should be taken to an appropriate health facility for follow‐up care) [c]. Injection: 80 mg + 16 mg/ mL in 5‐ mL ampoule; sulfamethoxazole + trimethoprim 80 mg + 16 mg/ mL in 10‐ mL ampoule. Medicines for the treatment of 2nd stage African trypanosomiasis Injection: 200 mg (hydrochloride)/ mL in 100‐ mL bottle. Dose form leuprorelin early stage breast cancer metastatic prostate cancer Powder for injection: 100 mg (as sodium succinate) in hydrocortisone vial. Injection: 40 mg/ mL (as sodium succinate) in 1‐ mL single‐dose vial and methylprednisolone [c] 5‐ mL multi‐dose vials; 80 mg/ mL (as sodium succinate) in 1‐ mL single‐dose vial. Tablet: equivalent to 60 mg iron + 400 micrograms ferrous salt + folic acid folic acid (nutritional supplement for use during pregnancy). Complementary List [c] Injection: 4 micrograms/ mL (as acetate) in 1‐ mL desmopressin ampoule. Injection: 100 micrograms/ mL (as acid tartrate or epinephrine (adrenaline) hydrochloride) in 10‐ mL ampoule. Atenolol should not be used as a first‐ line agent in uncomplicated hypertension in patients >60 years enalapril Tablet: 2. Its use in the treatment of essential hypertension is not recommended in view of the evidence of greater efficacy and safety of other medicines. Injection: 140 mg to 350 mg iodine/ mL in 5‐ mL; 10‐ iohexol mL; 20‐ mL ampoules. However, as the stability of this latter formulation is very poor under tropical conditions, it is recommended only when manufactured for immediate use. Two‐rod levonorgestrel‐releasing implant, each rod levonorgestrel‐releasing implant containing 75 mg of levonorgestrel (150 mg total). Complementary List [c] Lugolʹs solution Oral liquid: about 130 mg total iodine/ mL. Selection of vaccines from the Model List will need to be determined by each country after consideration of international recommendations, epidemiology and national priorities. Complementary List mifepristone* – misoprostol* Tablet 200 mg – tablet 200 micrograms. Tablet (enteric‐coated): 200 mg; 500 mg (sodium valproic acid (sodium valproate) valproate). Inhalation (aerosol): 100 micrograms per dose; budesonide [c] 200 micrograms per dose. Injection: 1 mg (as hydrochloride or hydrogen epinephrine (adrenaline) tartrate) in 1‐ mL ampoule. It implies that there is no difference in clinical efficacy or safety between the available dosage forms, and countries should therefore choose the form(s) to be listed Solid oral dosage form depending on quality and availability. The term ʹsolid oral dosage formʹ is never intended to allow any type of modified‐release tablet. Refers to: uncoated or coated (film‐coated or sugar‐coated) tablets that are intended to be swallowed whole; unscored and scored ;* tablets that are intended to be chewed before being swallowed; Tablets tablets that are intended to be dispersed or dissolved in water or another suitable liquid before being swallowed; tablets that are intended to be crushed before being swallowed. The term ʹtabletʹ without qualification is never intended to allow any type of modified‐release tablet. Refers to a specific type of tablet: chewable ‐ tablets that are intended to be chewed before being swallowed; dispersible ‐ tablets that are intended to be dispersed in water or another suitable liquid before being swallowed; soluble ‐ tablets that are intended to be dissolved in water or another suitable liquid before being swallowed; crushable ‐ tablets that are intended to be crushed before being swallowed; Tablets (qualified) scored ‐ tablets bearing a break mark or marks where sub‐division is intended in order to provide doses of less than one tablet; sublingual ‐ tablets that are intended to be placed beneath the tongue. The term ʹtabletʹ is always qualified with an additional term (in parentheses) in entries where one of the following types of tablet is intended: gastro‐resistant (such tablets may sometimes be described as enteric‐coated or as delayed‐release), prolonged‐release or another modified‐release form. Capsules The term ʹcapsuleʹ without qualification is never intended to allow any type of modified‐release capsule. The term ʹcapsuleʹ with qualification refers to gastro‐resistant (such capsules may sometimes be described as enteric‐coated or as delayed‐ Capsules (qualified) release), prolonged‐release or another modified‐release form. Preparations that are issued to patient as granules to be swallowed without further preparation, to be chewed, or to be taken in or with water or another suitable liquid. Granules The term ʹgranulesʹ without further qualification is never intended to allow any type of modified‐release granules. Preparations that are issued to patient as powder (usually as single‐ Oral powder dose) to be taken in or with water or another suitable liquid. Oral liquids presented as powders or granules may offer benefits in the Oral liquid form of better stability and lower transport costs. It is preferable that oral liquids do not contain sugar and that solutions for children do not contain alcohol. Injection (qualified) Route of administration is indicated in parentheses where relevant. Injection (oily) The term `injection’ is qualified by `(oily)’ in relevant entries. Intravenous infusion Refers to solutions and emulsions including those constituted from powders or concentrated solutions. Other dosage forms Mode of Term to be used administration To the eye Eye drops, eye ointments. Use this guide to alert you to possible “food-drug interactions” and to help you learn what you can do to prevent them. In this guide, a food-drug interaction is a change in how a medicine works caused by food, caffeine, or alcohol. A food-drug interaction can: ▪ prevent a medicine from working the way it should ▪ cause a side effect from a medicine to get worse or better ▪ cause a new side effect A medicine can also change the way your body uses a food. This guide covers interactions between some common prescription and over-the- counter medicines and food, caffeine, and alcohol. Your age, weight, and sex; medical conditions; the dose of the medicine; other medicines; and vitamins, herbals, and other dietary supplements can affect how your medicines work. Every time you use a medicine, carefully follow the information on the label and directions from your doctor or pharmacist. Some medicines can work faster, slower, better, or worse when you take them on a full or empty stomach. On the other hand, some medicines will upset your stomach, and if there is food in your stomach, that can help reduce the upset. If you don’t see directions on your medicine labels, ask your doctor or pharmacist if it is best to take your medicines on an empty stomach (one hour before eating, or two hours after eating),with food, or after a meal (full stomach). Yes, the way your medicine works can change when: ▪ you swallow your medicine with alcohol ▪ you drink alcohol after you’ve taken your medicine ▪ you take your medicine after you’ve had alcohol to drink Alcohol can also add to the side effects caused by medicines. Some foods and drinks with caffeine are coffee, cola drinks, teas, chocolate, some high-energy drinks, and other soft drinks. This guide should never take the place of the advice from your doctor, pharmacist, or other health care professionals.
Physicians should pay particular tation often delay diagnosis until 30- to 34-weeks gesta- attention to stopping any medications that could be poten- tion 130mg malegra dxt, well after the effects of hyperglycemia have begun to tially harmful to the fetus malegra dxt 130 mg. Patient Education During Pregnancy A prenatal nutrition questionnaire helps the practitio- Pregnant women are more susceptible to food-borne ner to identify pregnancy-related problems affecting appe- illnesses and should practice safe food handling malegra dxt 130mg. Patients should also be queried on personal unpasteurized dairy products 130 mg malegra dxt; thoroughly wash fresh pro- nutritional habits , including vegetarian , vegan , lactose-free duce before consuming it ; and ensure that meats , poultry , and gluten-free diets, as well as cravings and aversions. All patients would beneft from referral to a dietician who Caffeine during pregnancy can increase the incidence specializes in nutrition in pregnancy and can evaluate the of miscarriage and stillbirth when consumed in large quan- patient’s individual habits, create an individualized meal tities. Generally, consuming less than 300 mg of caffeine plan, and address any special needs. Many women incorrectly estimate their daily weight gain for pregnant women who are obese. However, experts believe that it may be safe to gain little or no weight in pregnant women who are obese, additional calories may in this special population. Healthcare profes- Physical activity is also an important aspect of a sionals should determine the appropriate caloric intake for healthy pregnancy. Simple carbohydrates and Table 30 Dietary Reference Intakes for Womena,b Adult Lactation Nutrient woman Pregnancy (0-6 mo) Energy (kcal) 2,403 2,743 , 2,855c d 2,698 Protein (g/kg/day) 0. Protein is essential for the expansion Trans fatty acids may cross the placenta and may have of plasma volume; the generation of amniotic fuid; and to adverse effects on fetal development. Pregnant women who are vegetarian or Micronutrient Needs During Pregnancy vegan must be referred to a dietician specialized in preg- Pregnant women require specifc micronutrients to nancy to assist in specialized meal planning and recom- meet their gestational needs. Women should pay simplest way to assure that a woman is getting adequate close attention to the type of fat being consumed. Public Health Service recommends that all women in women are falling signifcantly short of recommended lev- their childbearing years consume 400 µg/day of folic acid. Women should be Women should maintain a daily iodine intake of 250 encouraged to eat 12 ounces of fsh per week. Maternal milk is also at the is needed for fetal erythropoiesis and an increase in mater- appropriate temperature, and breastfeeding creates a bond- nal red blood cell mass. Vitamin D requirements also do not change eral requirements all increase during lactation. Caloric intake exceeds prepregnancy demands by Vitamin A is imperative for fetal eye development and approximately 650 kcal/day in average sized women has been known to be defcient in developing countries. Anemic women on iron supplementa- lactation or eat a carbohydrate-containing snack prior to tion should take supplemental zinc. The recom- Exclusive breastfeeding is extremely benefcial for the mended rate of weight loss of 0. Nutrients that should myriad of educators and support groups such as lactation be repleted during lactation include calcium, magnesium, consultants, nurse educators and the La Leche League, all zinc, thiamin, vitamin B6, iodine, and folate. Their infants will beneft from a nutritional take 60 to 120 mg/day of ferrous sulfate. Iron supplementa- source with the appropriate nutrients and antibodies that tion should be continued until anemia is resolved. Some experts recommend Toward an Ideal Body Weight that bovine-based infant formula be completely avoided To achieve and maintain an ideal body weight is advis- during the frst year of life. If formula is required, parents able for all age groups because both over- and underweight should use soy-based products. However, both overweight and under- weight are present more frequently in older adults. Aging is Introduction: Why the Need for associated with unfavorable changes in body composition Healthy Eating for the Elderly? Older people are also prone to underweight and vidual’s physiological age (functional age) or true aging cachexia because malnourishment associated with aging status. We consider “healthy eating for the elderly” appli- and undernutrition associated with chronic diseases are cable even to those in their “middle age,” insofar as modi- more prevalent in the elderly. Both overweight and under- fying eating behaviors is more effective when it is started weight are predictors of functional impairment, chronic early. Many people start Defciency in Older Adults to gain weight, particularly fat mass, when they get older. Prevention of micronutrient defciency may be chal- In part, this is because their caloric intake is not adjusted to lenging for the elderly for 2 reasons. Additionally, there is the need for caloric and, hence, retards aging processes in this regard. To constrain caloric overconsumption while ensuring tional weight loss in the elderly. Aging is associated with micronutrient adequacy, foods low in calories and rich in gradual declines in appetite, taste and smell sensitivity, micronutrients should be ingested routinely. For carbohydrates, older adults are encour- the priority in achieving healthy eating objectives in this aged to consume more nutrient-dense whole grain foods subgroup of the elderly should be very different from peo- (high nutrient-to-calorie ratio), such as brown rice, whole ple who are overweight and/or obese. Consumption of refned together with supplementation of essential micronutrients, starch-based foods poor in other micronutrients, such as should be the focus of the healthy eating strategy and take processed potato, white bread, pasta, and other commercial precedent over the usual recommendation of “balanced products made of refned wheat four, should be decreased. In general, however, body weight is the ulti- and processed food intake should be minimal in order to mate measure for energy balance in the absence of edema- meet the guidelines for cardiovascular health. Gaining weight means a positive essential component of nutrition that must receive atten- energy balance, which results either from too little physical tion. Adequate and habitual fuid intake is encouraged for activity, too much food intake, or both. On the other hand, the elderly, as the thirst mechanism may become impaired weight loss means negative energy balance resulting from with aging. Dehydration proves to be a prevalent condi- more energy expenditure than caloric intake. A variety of colored vegetables and fruits (both bright- and deep-colored) are excellent sources of miner- 3. Special or Frail elderly who are nutritionally vulnerable require restrictive meal plans should be limited to individuals with special attention. These are individuals who are under- specifc diseases, where there is a need for limiting certain weight or at great risk for unintentional weight loss. With a nutritional priority for these individuals is to increase good meal plan, both energy and macro-/micronutrient caloric intake and achieve energy balance. However, a high risk for def- of healthy eating for other older adults should still apply to ciency of several micronutrients (calcium and vitamins D the greatest extent possible. Successful strategies to increase caloric and fruit juice (such as orange juice) need be consumed daily. The requirement for vitamin B12 supplemen- holds true whether at home or in a long-term care facility. Many of these problems are important to highlight that these chronic endocrine and potentially reversible and should be screened for and cor- metabolic diseases are more prevalent in the elderly, and rected if present. Also, attention should be paid to selecting more often than not co-exist in the same individual. Age-related reduction in appetite may be common thoughtful comments strengthened this document. Social isolation, phys- ical disability, inability to shop or prepare tasty meals, and Co-Chairs depression can all lead to poor appetite and undernutrition Dr. Importantly, many medical conditions are does not have any relevant fnancial relationships with any directly, and indirectly through polypharmacy, associated commercial interests. Jeor reports that she has received lant for potentially reversible causes of anorexia. Ayesha Ebrahim reports that she does not have function, resulting in poor perception of otherwise palat- any relevant fnancial relationships with any commercial able foods. Chronic laxative use salary as an employee from OmegaQuant and research in the elderly may also impair nutrient absorption or cause grant support for graduate studies from General Mills Inc. Dan Hurley reports that he does not have any rele- nutrient interactions may affect the absorption and metabo- vant fnancial relationships with any commercial interests. Physicians treating geriatric patients should any relevant fnancial relationships with any commercial make every effort to reduce the number of medications interests. Penny Kris-Etherton reports that she has received better adherence to the treatment regimens and for better honoraria as a Scientifc Advisory Council member from nutritional care of the patients under the treatment (705 Unilever and McDonald’s Global Advisory Council. Maureen Molini-Blandford reports that she American Dietetic Association: integration of medical nutrition therapy and pharmacotherapy. Behavioral counseling interventions to pro- Company, and Genzyme Corporation, a Sanof company. Raymond Plodkowski reports that he does not Prevention of type 2 diabetes mellitus by changes in life- have any relevant fnancial relationships with any com- style among subjects with impaired glucose tolerance. Sarwer reports that he has received con- Reduction in the incidence of type 2 diabetes with lifestyle sulting fees from Allergan, Inc. Turning back have any relevant fnancial relationships with any commer- the clock: adopting a healthy lifestyle in middle age. Dietary the signifcance of a physician shortage in nutrition medi- intake of fruits, vegetables, and fat in Olmsted County, cine? The effect of Compilation of recommendations from summit on increas- fruit and vegetable intake on risk for coronary heart dis- ing physician nutrition experts. By how much does fruit and veg- weight patients with coronary artery disease participating etable consumption reduce the risk of ischaemic heart dis- in an intensive lifestyle modifcation program. Investigating the associations between work of dietary supplements and nutraceuticals. Dietary Guidelines for ity in a community-dwelling population in Washington Americans 2005. Dietary Heart, Lung, and Blood Institue; National Institutes fber and the risk of colorectal cancer and adenoma in of Health. Dietary fbre for the prevention of approaches to prevent and treat hypertension: a scien- colorectal adenomas and carcinomas. Dietary fber Adherence to Mediterranean diet and health status: meta- and subsequent changes in body weight and waist circum- analysis. The effects diet and risk of developing diabetes: prospective cohort of a whole grain-enriched hypocaloric diet on cardiovascu- study. Effect of milk acid, beneft cardiovascular disease outcomes in primary- tripeptides on blood pressure: a meta-analysis of random- and secondary-prevention studies: a systematic review. Dietary satu- long-chain omega-3 fatty acid associated with reduced risk rated fats and their food sources in relation to the risk of for death from coronary heart disease in healthy adults. Effects of living persons with hypercholesterolemia: a long-term, omega-3 fatty acids on cardiovascular risk factors and randomized clinical trial. Alpha-linolenic acid and marine fatty and lean fsh intake on blood pressure in subjects with long-chain n-3 fatty acids differ only slightly in their coronary heart disease using multiple medications. Effects association between cheese consumption and cardiovascu- of dietary fatty acids and carbohydrates on the ratio of lar risk factors among adults. Omega-6 blood pressure, lower body weight, and a smaller waist fatty acids and risk for cardiovascular disease: a science circumference in adults: results from the National Health advisory from the American Heart Association Nutrition and Nutrition Examination Survey 1999-2002. Frequent nut of vitamin B-12 defciency: randomised placebo controlled intake and risk of death from coronary heart disease and trial. Nut consumption, lipids, and risk of a coro- Niacin, Vitamin B-6, Vitamin B-12, Pantothenic Acid, nary event. A min therapy for the treatment of cobalamin defciencies in possible protective effect of nut consumption on risk of elderly patients. Tree nuts and the lipid pro- Association between 25-hydroxy vitamin D levels, physi- fle: a review of clinical studies. J Clin a dietary portfolio of cholesterol-lowering foods vs lov- Endocrinol Metab. Food and min D and calcium supplementation on falls: a random- Drug Administration, 2003. Dietary Reference Intakes for Calcium and Vitamin review for a National Institutes of Health state-of-the- D. American primary prevention of cardiovascular disease and cancer: Association of Clinical Endocrinologists Medical the Women’s Health Study: a randomized controlled trial. Lack of Conference Statement: multivitamin/mineral supplements effect of long-term supplementation with beta carotene on and chronic disease prevention. Allied Health Sciences Section Ad Hoc Nutrition vitamin D supplementation and the risk of fractures. Nutritional defciencies following bariatric sur- Nutritional Prevention of Cancer Study Group. Endocrine metabolic dysfunction associated to insulin resistance and nutritional management of the post-bariatric surgery and oxidative stress induced by an unbalanced diet. Adiposopathy is “sick fat” a cardiovascular dis- sequences of adipocyte hypertrophy and increased visceral ease? National Institutes of Health-North American Association tion statement on obesity and obesity medicine. Exercise ameliorates high- Correlates of fruit and vegetable intake among adoles- fat diet-induced metabolic and vascular dysfunction, and cents. Identifying retail food stores restaurant food consumption with 3-y change in body mass to evaluate the food environment. Role of food prepared tional, convenience, and nontraditional types of food stores away from home in the American diet, 1977-78 versus in two rural Texas counties. Night eating and weight change in middle- time in children: a systematic review and meta-analysis of aged men and women. The role of schools systematic review of interventions to improve health pro- in obesity prevention. Availability of a la carte food items Improving health professionals’ management and the in junior and senior high schools: a needs assessment.
Learning also can be compromised by time spent away from the classroom • Take a break if you or the child is very upset malegra dxt 130mg. Teachers often are the frst to notice the symptoms of bipolar disorder malegra dxt 130 mg, and can provide parents 130 mg malegra dxt, guardians 130mg malegra dxt, and doctors with information that Children beneft when may help diagnose and treat the disorder . They also can play an important role in implementing a successful treatment program by using instructional teachers use behavioral and behavioral strategies in the classroom . Families also for good behaviors and can request an evaluation to determine if their child qualifes for educa- having consequences tional services . Testing and services are dren learn boundaries confdential and are provided through the public school system at no cost and how to deal with to the family . Both laws provide assistance to students with disabilities to meet their unique learning and behavioral needs , including accommodations and modifcations in the classroom and diagnostic and counseling services . Increasing numbers of children with bipolar disorder attend private Taking Medication at School therapeutic schools, which have an educational and mental health If dosing is necessary during the focus. Because public schools may lack the resources or trained staff day, parents and guardians should to teach students with bipolar disorder, some school districts are contact the school principal, nurse, paying their private school tuition as a way to provide free appropri- or guidance counselor to arrange ate public education. The Federal law states that schools American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry also has cannot make decisions about online education resources to help parents fnd services for children medicine for a child or require with special needs. To access a fact sheet about services in school students to take medicine to § attend school. Children with bipolar disorder often have diffculty with social (peer) relationships, which can cause confict at home and at school. Also, children with bipolar disorder are more frequently the targets of bullies or are bullies themselves. Peer-group programs focused on successful social inter- control their temper actions (social skills groups) may be offered by school personnel, psychologists, speech pathologists, occupational therapists, licensed counselors, and social in challenging social workers. Unproven Treatments Do alternative treatments for bipolar disorder, such as special diets or herbal supplements, really work? Parents often hear reports of “miracle cures” for bipolar disorder on the television, in magazines, or in advertisements. Before considering any treatment for bipolar disorder, fnd out whether the source of this informa- “Too often siblings tion is unbiased and whether the claims are valid, and discuss it with your of children with child’s doctor. Always tell your child’s doctor about any alternative therapies, bipolar disorder supplements, or over-the-counter medications that your child is using. They may interact with prescribed medications and hinder your child’s progress or suffer silently, compromise your child’s safety. While it would be wonderful if these treatments worked, rigorous scientifc research has not found these alternatives to be effective for managing the symptoms of bipolar disorder—and they are certainly not “cures. During the past ten years, a signifcant amount of research has been conducted on bipolar disorder in children and adolescents. Doctors now have two guidelines to follow, one from the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry and another from the Child and Adolescent Bipolar Foundation. Data about bipolar disorder in children and adolescents exists from eight, large, well-controlled clinical trials and several longitudinal studies. Multiple neurobiological studies have been conducted as well as stud- ies that document the effectiveness of medication and psychosocial treatment for children and adolescents with bipolar disorder. The focus for doctors who treat children and adolescents with bipolar disorder has shifted from, “Does bipolar disorder really exist in children and adolescents? For a summary of research on bipolar disorder at the National Institute of Mental Health, go to: http://www. Franklin Street, Suite 501 Center, Center for Mental Health Services, Chicago, Illinois 60654-7225 Substance Abuse and Mental Health 1-800-826-3632 Services Administration http://www. Rynn • The Wind in the Willows by Kenneth Grahame • Ups and Downs: How to Beat the Blues and Teen Depression by Susan Klebanoff and and Ellen Luborsky For young adults • Bipolar Disorder by Judith Peacock • The Bipolar Teen: What You Can Do to Help Your Child and Your Family by David J. George • Coping with Depression by Sharon Carter and Lawrence Clayton • Depression by Alvin Silverstein • Depression Is the Pits, But I’m Getting Better: A Guide For Adolescents by E. Jane Garland The information contained in this guide is not intended as, and is not a substitute for, professional medical ParentsMedGuide. Sommers • Intense Minds by Tracy Anglada • Mind Race: A Firsthand Account of One Teenager’s Experience with Bipolar Disorder by Patrick E. Miller • The Depression Sourcebook by Brian Quinn • Depression in the Young: What We Can Do to Help Them by Trudy Carlson • Helping Your Teenager Beat Depression: A Problem-Solving Approach for Families by Katharina Manassis and Anne Marie Levac • “Help Me, I’m Sad”: Recognizing, Treating, and Preventing Childhood and Adolescent Depression by David G. Dumas • How You Can Survive When They’re Depressed: Living and Coping With Depression Fallout by Anne Sheffeld • If Your Adolescent Has Depression or Bipolar Disorder: The Teen at Risk and Your — What You Face and What to do About It by Dwight Evans • Life of a Bipolar Child: What Every Parent and Professional Needs to Know by Trudy Carlson • Lonely, Sad and Angry: A Parent’s Guide to Depression in Children and Adolescents by Barbara D. Ingersoll • New Hope for Children and Teens with Bipolar Disorder: Your Friendly, Authoritative Guide to the Latest in Traditional and Complementary Solutions by Boris Birmaher • Overcoming Teen Depression: A Guide for Parents by Miriam Kaufman • Raising a Moody Child by Mary A Fristad • Straight Talk About Your Child’s Mental Health: What To Do When Something Seems Wrong by Stephen Faraone • What Works for Bipolar Kids by Mani Pavuluri The information contained in this guide is not intended as, and is not a substitute for, professional medical ParentsMedGuide. Anglada • Understanding Mental Illness: For Teens Who Care about Someone with Mental Illness by Julie Tallard Johnson Books about understanding psychiatric disorders • It’s Nobody’s Fault by H. Koplewicz Books about understanding psychiatric medications • New Hope for Children and Teens with Bipolar Disorder by Boris Birmaher, M. Department of Education, Center for School Mental Health Offce of Special Education University of Maryland School of Medicine 400 Maryland Ave. Dietary guidance: • Use portion control for all food at meals and snacks—measure and limit size of portions (pour out an amount of snack rather than eating out of box or bag) • Use more healthy food choices (fresh fruits and vegetables for snacks) • Limit snacks and junk food • Substitute high-calorie snacks with lower-calorie alternatives (pretzels instead of chips and nuts) • Drink several large glasses of water throughout the day • Limit (or stop) sugar-containing beverages (sodas, juice, sports drinks, etc. If these healthy lifestyle interventions do not help to reduce weight gain, a switch to a lower-risk medication should be considered. Many times, children have diffculties explaining the symptoms they are experiencing. They also may have diffculty understanding that they have a mental health condition, or that they need treatment. Some of the ways parents can advocate for their child are by: • Getting a comprehensive evaluation. Finding the most knowledgeable and experienced doctor to care for your child can make for a positive outcome. Many parents insist on receiving copies of their child’s evaluations and treatment plans. Responsible mental health professionals gladly help patients with referrals for second opinions. Author and Expert Consultant Disclosures and Contributing Organizations The following individuals contributed to the development of the Parent’s Medication Guide for Bipolar Disorder in Children and Adolescents Christopher J. Below is a comprehensive list of fnancial disclosures which may confict with the contributors’ role in the development of this guide. Research Support: Eli Lilly and Company; Consultant: Eli Lilly and Company; McNeil; Shire Pharmaceuticals Inc. Company; Medicure; Janssen, Division of Board Member, American Psychiatric Asso- Ortho-McNeil-Janssen Pharmaceuticals, ciation; Mental Health America, Child and Inc. Bristol-Myers Squibb; Otsuka America Consultant: Forest Pharmaceutical; Pharmaceutical, Inc. Health and Human Development; Consultant: The Resource for Advancing National Institute of Mental Health; Children’s Health Institute (Scientifc Stanley Foundation Steering Committee Member and Faculty); Other: Forest Pharmaceutical; Editor American Psychiatric Association/Shire (Current Psychiatry) Child Psychiatry Fellowship (Chair of Selection Committee) R. Books, Intellectual Property: Palladian Advisory Board: Bristol-Myers Squibb; Partners Government Contractor; Eli Lilly and Company; Otsuka American Psychiatric Association; America Pharmaceutical, Inc. No Disclosures The information contained in this guide is not intended as, and is not a substitute for, professional medical ParentsMedGuide. National trends in the outpatient diagnosis and treatment of bipolar disorder in youth. Accessed on 6/24/08 The information contained in this guide is not intended as, and is not a substitute for, professional medical ParentsMedGuide. Presented at the 63rd Annual Meeting of the Society of Biological Psychiatry, May 1-3, 2008, Washington, D. Lower risk for tardive dyskinesia associated with second-generation antipsychotics: a systematic review of 1-year studies. Department of Health and Human Services, Children’s Mental Health Facts: Bipolar Children. Department of Health and Human Services, Mental Health: A Report of the Surgeon General—Executive Summary. Department of Health and Human Services, Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration, Center for Mental Health Services, National Institutes of Health, National Institute of Mental Health, 1999. Department of Education, Free Appropriate Public Education for Students With Disabilities: Requirements Under Section 504 of The Rehabilitation Act of 1973. Department of Health and Human Services, Your Rights Under Section 504 of the Rehabilitation Act. Sutton is a 35-year-old man who presented to his primary care provider with a sore throat and fatigue. He was diagnosed with acute pharyngitis and started on ampicillin for empiric treatment. Within a few days of his treatment he presented to urgent care with a new rash that began on his trunk and has spread to his extremities. All of the above 9 Case One, Question 1 Answer: e What else would you like to know about Mr. If the primary care provider ordered a test for mononucleosis (Ampicillin in the setting of acute mononucelosis often causes a characteristic rash) d. Past medical history (Risk factors for adverse drug reactions include certain disease states and previous history of drug eruptions) e. Vasculitis 17 Exanthematous Drug Eruption Exanthematous eruptions are the most common of all cutaneous drug eruptions (~90%) Limited to the skin Lesions initially appear on the trunk and spread centrifugally to the extremities in a symmetric fashion Erythematous macules and infiltrated papules Pruritus and mild fever may be present Skin lesions usually appear more than 2 days after the drug has been started, mainly around day 8-11, and occasionally persists several days after having stopped the drug 18 Examples of Exanthematous Drug Eruptions 19 Clinical Course and Treatment Resolves in a few days to a week after the medication is stopped May continue the medication safely if the eruption is not too severe and the medication cannot be substituted Resolves without sequelae (though extensive scaling/desquamation can occur) Treatment consists of topical steroids, oral antihistamines, and reassurance 20 Case Two Ms. Hernandez is a 26-year-old woman who was recently diagnosed with bacterial vaginosis and prescribed oral metronidazole for treatment. She returned to her primary care provider the following day because she developed a “spot” on her thigh. Erythema migrans (presents as an erythematous macule, which expands to produce an annular lesion with central clearing causing a target-like appearance) c. Spider bite (generally more necrotic and painful, though these can be difficult to exclude and are frequently misdiagnosed) e. Three weeks after starting therapy, he began to feel unwell with fever and malaise. He was brought to the emergency room by his mother when a generalized rash appeared. Vasculitis 34 Case Three, Question 1 Answer: a Based on the history and clinical findings, which of the following drug reactions do you suspect? Holloway is a 29-year-old woman who presented to the local emergency room with a painful, expanding, and “sloughing” rash. All of the above 47 Case Four, Question 1 Answer: d What is the next best step in management? Consult dermatology (when there is concern for severe skin involvement dermatology should be consulted) b. This version of the manuscript will be replaced with the final, published version after it has been published in the print edition of the journal. American Association of Clinical Endocrinologists Medical Guidelines for Clinical Practice are systematically developed statements to assist health care professionals in medical decision- making for specific clinical conditions. These guidelines are a working document reflecting the state of the field at the time of publication. Because rapid changes in this area are expected, periodic revisions are inevitable. We encourage medical professionals to use this information in conjunction with their best clinical judgment. Each recommendation is based on a diligent review of the clinical evidence with transparent incorporation of subjective factors. There are 9 broad clinical questions with 123 recommendation numbers with 160 specific statements (85 [53. The thrust of the final recommendations is to recognize that obesity is a complex, adiposity-based chronic disease, where management targets both weight-related complications and adiposity to improve overall health and quality of life. The detailed evidence-based recommendations allow for nuance-based clinical decision-making that addresses the multiple aspects of real-world medical care of patients with obesity, including screening, diagnosis, evaluation, selection of therapy, treatment goals, and individualization of care. The goal is to facilitate high-quality care of patients with obesity and provide a rational, scientifically based approach to management that optimizes health outcomes and safety. Adipose tissue itself is an endocrine organ which can become dysfunctional in obesity and contribute to systemic metabolic disease. Weight loss can be used to prevent and treat metabolic disease concomitant with improvements in adipose tissue functionality. These new therapeutic tools and scientific advances necessitate development of rational medical care models and robust evidenced-based therapeutic approaches, with the intended goal of improving patient well-being and recognizing patients as individuals with unique phenotypes in unique settings. These developments have the potential to accelerate scientific study of the multidimensional pathophysiology of obesity and also present an impetus to our health care system to provide effective treatment and prevention. The conference convened a wide array of national stakeholders (the “pillars”) with a vested interest in obesity. The concerted participation of these stakeholders was recognized as necessary to support an effective overall action plan, and they included health professional organizations, government regulatory agencies, employers, health care insurers, pharmaceutical industry representatives, research organizations, disease advocacy organizations, and health profession educators. Thus, the main endpoint of therapy is to measurably improve patient health and quality of life. In aggregate, these questions evaluate obesity as a chronic disease and consequently outline a comprehensive care plan to assist the clinician in caring for patients with obesity. Neither of these approaches addresses the totality, multiplicity, or complexity of issues required to provide effective, comprehensive obesity management applicable to real-world patient care. Moreover, the nuances of obesity care in an obesogenic-built environment, which at times have an overwhelming socioeconomic contextualization, require diligent analysis of the full weight of extant evidence. The strength of each recommendation is commensurate with the strength of evidence.
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