By L. Abbas. Merrimack College.
Most likely this is the reason why people engaged in high impact injury-prone sports are at a signicantly greater risk of osteo- arthritis 500mcg advair diskus. Further 250 mcg advair diskus, there appears to be little risk associated with recreational running 20 to 40 km a week (13 to 25 miles) advair diskus 250mcg. It is not surprising that an injured joint is more likely to be subsequently subject to wear and tear advair diskus 100mcg. A joint injury usually com- promises to some extent the lubricating ability of the joint leading to increased frictional wear and osteoarthritis advair diskus 250 mcg. This simple picture would lead one to expect that the progress of osteoarthritis would be more rapidly in the joints of peo- ple who are regular runners than in a control group of non-runners 250mcg advair diskus. Osteoarthritis seems to progress at about the same rate in both groups 100mcg advair diskus, indicating that the joints possess some ability to self- repair advair diskus 500mcg. If the bones of one arm absorb all the kinetic energy (neglecting the energy of the fall) 500 mcg advair diskus, what is the minimum speed of the runner that will cause a fracture of the arm bone? Assume that the object is hard 100 mcg advair diskus, that the area of contact with the skull is 1cm2, and that the duration of impact is 103 sec. Calculate the duration of the collision between the passenger and the inated bag of the collision protection device discussed in this chapter. In a rear-end collision the automobile that is hit is accelerated to a veloc- ity v in 102/sec. What is the minimum velocity at which there is danger of neck fracture from whiplash? Use the data provided in the text, and assume that the area of the cervical vertebra is 1 cm2 and the mass of the head is 5 kg. Calculate the average decelerating impact force if a person falling with a terminal velocity of 62. Assume that the persons mass is 70 kg and that she lands at on her back so that the area of impact is 0. Assuming that the moving part of his hand weighs 5 kg, calculate the rebound velocity and kinetic energy of the bag. In particular, we will consider the hovering ight of insects, using in our calculations many of the concepts introduced in the previous chapters. The parameters required for the computations were in most cases obtained from the literature, but some had to be estimated because they were not readily available. A complete discussion of ight would take into account aerodynamics as well as the changing shape of the wings at the various stages of ight. Dierences in wing movements between large and small insects have only recently been demonstrated. The following discussion is highly simplied but nevertheless illustrates some of the basic physics of ight. The wings are required to provide sideways stabi- lization as well as the lifting force necessary to overcome the force of gravity. As the wings push down on the surrounding air, the resulting reaction force of the air on the wings forces the insect up. The wings of most insects are designed so that during the upward stroke the force on the wings is small. During the upward movement of the wings, the gravitational force causes the insect to drop. The downward wing movement then produces an upward force that restores the insect to its original position. The vertical position of the insect thus oscillates up and down at the frequency of the wingbeat. The distance the insect falls between wingbeats depends on how rapidly its wings are beating. If the insect aps its wings at a slow rate, the time interval during which the lifting force is zero is longer, and therefore the insect falls farther than if its wings were beating rapidly. We can easily compute the wingbeat frequency necessary for the insect to maintain a given stability in its amplitude. To simplify the calculations, let us assume that the lifting force is at a nite constant value while the wings are moving down and that it is zero while the wings are moving up. During the time interval t of the upward wingbeat, the insect drops a distance h under the action of gravity. Typically, it may be required that the vertical position of the insect change by no more Section 6. This is a typical insect wingbeat frequency, although some insects such as butteries y at much lower frequency, about 10 wingbeats per second (they cannot hover), and other small insects produce as many as 1000 wingbeats per second. To restore the vertical position of the insect during the downward wing stroke, the average upward force, Fav on the body of the insect must be equal to twice the weight of the insect (see Exercise 6-1). Note that since the upward force on the insect body is applied only for half the time, the average upward force on the insect is simply its weight. The wing movement is controlled by many muscles, which are here repre- sented by muscles A and B. The upward movement of the wings is produced by the contraction of muscle A, which depresses the upper part of the thorax and causes the attached wings to move up. Note that the force produced by muscle A is applied to the wing by means of a Class 1 lever. The downward wing movement is produced by the contraction of muscle B while muscle A is relaxed. Measurements show that dur- ing a wing swing of about 70, muscles A and B contract only about 2%. Assuming that the length of muscle B is 3 mm, the change in length during the muscle contraction is 0. It can be shown that under these conditions, muscle B must be attached to the wing 0. If the wingbeat frequency is 110 wingbeats per second, the period for one up-and-down motion of the wings is 9 103 sec. The downward wing movement produced by muscle B takes half this length of time, or 4. Such a rate of muscle contraction is commonly observed in many types of muscle tissue. Because the pressure applied by the wings is uniformly distributed over the total wing area, we can assume that the force generated by each wing acts through a single point at the midsection of the wings. During the downward stroke, the center of the wings traverses a vertical distance d (see Fig. The total work done by the insect during each downward stroke is the product of force and distance; that is, Work Fav d 2Wd (6. Our insect makes 110 down- ward strokes per second; therefore, its power output P is 4 3 P 112 erg 110/sec 1. To obtain the moment of inertia for the wing, we will assume that the wing can be approximated by a thin rod pivoted at one end. The maximum angular velocity max can be calculated from the maximum linear velocity vmax at the center of the wing vmax max (6. When the wings are decelerated toward the end of the stroke, this energy must be dissipated. During the downstroke, the kinetic energy is dissipated by the muscles themselves and is converted into heat. The wing joints of these insects contain a pad of elastic, rubberlike protein called resilin (Fig. The kinetic energy of the wing is converted into potential energy in the stretched resilin, which stores the energy much like a spring. Using a few simplifying assumptions, we can calculate the amount of energy stored in the stretched resilin. Although the resilin is bent into a com- plex shape, we will assume in our calculation that it is a straight rod of area A and length. Furthermore, we will assume that throughout the stretch the resilin obeys Hookes law. This is not strictly true as the resilin is stretched by a considerable amount and therefore both the area and Youngs modulus change in the process of stretching. Typically, in an insect the size of a bee the volume of the resilin may be equivalent to a cylinder 2 102 cm long and 4 104 cm2 in area. We will assume that the length of the resilin rod is increased by 50% when stretched. Experiments show that as much as 80% of the kinetic energy of the wing may be stored in the resilin. The hind legs of the ea, for exam- ple, also contain resilin, which stores energy for jumping (see Exercise 6-3). Compute the force on the body of the insect that must be generated during the downward wing stroke to keep the insect hovering. Referring to the discussion in the text, compute the point of attachment to the wing of muscle B in Fig. Assume that the shape of the resilin in each leg of the ea is equivalent to a cylinder 2 102 cm long and 104 cm2 in area. If the change in the length of the resilin is 102 cm, calculate the energy stored in the resilin. How large would these pads have to be in order for them to store 1 enough energy for a m jump? In the next three chapters, we will discuss the behavior of liquids and gases, both of which play an important role in the life sci- ences. The dierences in the physical properties of solids, liquids, and gases are explained in terms of the forces that bind the molecules. In a solid, the molecules are rigidly bound; a solid therefore has a denite shape and vol- ume. The molecules constituting a liquid are not bound together with su- cient force to maintain a denite shape, but the binding is suciently strong to maintain a denite volume. Therefore a gas has neither a denite shape nor a denite volumeit completely lls the vessel in which it is contained. Fluids and solids are governed by the same laws of mechan- ics, but, because of their ability to ow, uids exhibit some phenomena not found in solid matter. In this chapter we will illustrate the properties of uid pressure, buoyant force in liquids, and surface tension with examples from biology and zoology. When a force is applied to one section of a solid, this force is transmitted to the other parts of the solid with its direction unchanged. Because of a uids ability to ow, it transmits a force uniformly in all directions. A uid in a container exerts a force on all parts of the container in contact with the uid. The pressure in a uid increases with depth because of the weight of the uid above. In a uid of constant density, the dierence in pressure, P2 P1, between two points separated by a vertical distance h is P2 P1 gh (7. The relationship between the torr and several of the other units used to measure pressure follows: 1 torr 1mmHg 13. Because the pressure throughout the uid is the same, the force F2 acting on the area A2 in Fig. There are, however, soft-bodied animals (such as the sea anemone and the earthworm) that lack a rm skeleton. For the purpose of understanding the movements of an animal such as a worm, we can think of the animal as consisting of a closed elastic cylinder lled with a liquid; the cylinder is its hydrostatic skeleton. The worm pro- duces its movements with the longitudinal and circular muscles running along the walls of the cylinder (see Fig. Because the volume of the liquid in the cylinder is constant, contraction of the circular muscles makes the worm thinner and longer. Contraction of the longitudinal muscles causes the animal to become shorter and fatter. If the longitudinal muscles contract only on one side, the animal bends toward the contracting side. By anchoring alternate ends of its body to a surface and by producing sequential longitudinal and cir- cular contractions, the animal moves itself forward or backward. Assume that the circular muscles running around its circumference are uniformly distributed along the length of the worm and that the eective area of the muscle per unit length of the worm Section 7. The force Ff in the forward direction generated by this pressure, which stretches the worm, is 2 4 Ff P r 1. We will now use Archimedes principle to calculate the power required to remain aoat in water and to study the buoyancy of sh. If its density is greater than that of water, the animal must perform work in order not to sink. We will calculate the power P required for an animal of volume V and density to oat with a fraction f of its volume submerged. This motion accelerates the water downward and results in the upward reaction force that supports the animal. If the area of the moving limbs is A and the nal velocity of the accelerated water is v, the mass of water accelerated per unit time in the treading motion is given by (see Exercise 7-1) m Avw (7. The force producing this change in the momentum is applied to the water by the moving limbs. The kinetic energy given to the water each second is half the product of the mass accelerated each second and the squared nal velocity of the water. Note that, in our calculation, we have neglected the kinetic energy of the moving limbs.
Insulin pen kept at room temperature Check the insulin for any discoloration 250 mcg advair diskus, cloudiness 250mcg advair diskus, or (between 36F and 86F) advair diskus 250 mcg. If you see any of these advair diskus 500mcg, throw the pen or cartridge away and Dont leave it in the car use another 100mcg advair diskus. Using a new needle every Throw away open vials after time helps you make sure you get the right amount of insulin 500 mcg advair diskus. If you dont see a stream of insulin advair diskus 500 mcg, keep pressing until insulin does come out of the needle 100 mcg advair diskus. For larger doses of insulin 500mcg advair diskus, you may need to count to 15 before removing the needle advair diskus 100 mcg. In general, it takes a bit longer for insulin to come out of a pen than out of a syringe. If theres insulin dripping from the needle when you pull it out, that tells you that you need to leave it in longer next time. They block the enzymes that can (angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors) cause your blood vessels to tighten. Good blood glucose control can help control your beta blockers Beta blockers are used to treat high blood pressure, cholesterol too especially chest pain (angina), and irregular heart rhythms. They work by blocking the chemicals that make your Statin medications can help heart pump faster and more forcefully. This lessens the volume of blood inside your blood vessels and takes the pressure off artery walls. Medication works best when 99 combined with regularly checking and tracking your blood glucose, meal planning, and exercise. Pay attention to how your medications affect you and 99 communicate with your doctor. Your blood glucose readings and any symptoms and side effects are good clues as to how your medications are working for you. Or, take your medications at the same time you do other regular activities like brushing your teeth, watching the evening news, or eating a meal. For oral medications, use a pillbox for different times 99 of the day, or different days of the week. She filled out a meal plan for me, and explained the whys and whens and the choices I could make each day. The plan she helped create for me doesnt have forbidden foods or anything like that. It just helps me plan better, eat a more balanced diet and find a good way to fit in those sweets from time to time. When you follow the basic guidelines, you will find it easier to manage your diabetes, without giving up all the foods you enjoy. A meal plan is a set of guidelines for when to eat, what to eat, and how much to eat. Your plan can be a written worksheet, or just a set of principles to guide your decisions each day. It can also help you reach other nutrition, help you choose goals like losing weight. By helping you eat healthy, it can help control your foods and plan menus, symptoms and lower your chance of diabetes complications. If you want the structure of a written meal plan, call the diabetes education center near you (see page 110 for more information). Many diabetes educators are dietitians, and they can work with you to create a written plan specifically for you. To do this, theyll consider your lifestyle and food preferences as well as your diabetes and other health risks. A written meal plan (like the one shown here) is a great tool to help you focus on your nutritional goals, stay on track, and train yourself to make healthy choices about food every day. Healthy eating for people with diabetes: key activities Healthy eating isnt as difficult as it sounds. And in spite of what you might think, your meal plan can actually make life simpler. By helping you do these three key activities: Establish consistent eating patterns Choose foods wisely Control your portion sizes The next few pages give you more information on each of these key activities. When you eat erratically for example, too much at one time, too little at another your blood glucose levels also tend to be all over the place. But eating consistently (regularly), can smooth out some of the peaks and valleys in your blood glucose levels. Theyre found in starchy Your eating pattern consists not only of the times you eat throughout the day, foods (like bread, rice, and but also the amount and types of foods you choose. The carbohydrate connection Your body breaks down the foods you eat into three major types of nutrients: carbohydrates, proteins, and fats. Thats because most carbohydrates get broken Protein in your diet helps down into glucose, while very little of the fats and proteins that you eat build and repair your become glucose. So if you eat too many carbohydrates for a meal or snack, your blood glucose can go too high. For example, a bagel has four repair your cells and help times as many carbs as a slice of bread. If youre consistent in the amount of carbohydrates your body also stores fat you eat, you have a better chance of maintaining consistently healthy blood in various places around glucose levels. Balancing food intake with medications and physical activity will become that much easier. You just need to do a bit of planning and Follow your meal plan to help make sure you do the following: make healthy food choices. This helps you keep the amount of carbohydrates you eat consistent throughout the day. Eating between meals will make it harder for you to maintain a healthy weight and control your blood glucose. This can help you see 99Evenly space your carbohydrates how your food choices and throughout the day. And the truth is, the nutritional guidelines for people with Steer clear of fad diet books diabetes arent all that strict, unfamiliar, or hard-to-follow. These ideas are the foundation of good nutrition helping to Easy-to-follow instructions. Some good options are your choices throughout the day almonds, pistachios, and walnuts. Dairy products are good sources Most Americans not just people The key is choosing healthier fats: of calcium, protein, and vitamins. Choose those that say Less often, choose polyunsaturated If youre lactose-intolerant, choose "low sodium" or "low salt. Salmon and tuna milk made from soy, almonds, Skip foods and drinks with added are also healthy sources. If you do, talk to your fat is found in foods containing healthcare provider or diabetes hydrogenated or partially educator about how to fit alcohol hydrogenated oil. For example, your plan may tell you how many calories to eat each day, and tell you the number of servings, or grams of certain nutrients you need to get at each snack and meal time. The best way to hit these targets without having to do a lot of math is simply to control your portions. You ate every Why pay attention bite of a big, juicy steak, and now youre too full to portions? Eating smaller portions will make it easier to your portions: for you to have many different kinds of foods in your meals without eating too many calories. The only way to be consistent in your eating patterns is to use Whats the right amount? After all, when it comes to carbohydrates, a big plate of pasta is not the same How much you should eat at one sitting or in as a measured cup of noodles. Eating too much type of food you plan to eat, and the time you food even very nutritious food makes it plan to eat it. Your dietitian can help you set targets for it harder for you to maintain a healthy weight. Maintaining a healthy weight is important for people with diabetes, especially people with type 2 diabetes. To help you gain even tighter control over your How to control your portion sizes blood glucose levels, your One of the best ways to control your portions is to simply pay attention to doctor or diabetes educator them and to how your body feels as you eat. Beyond that, you might find may recommend that it helpful to check your portions against some outside measure. Get a set of measuring cups and spoons, and Carbohydrate counting is leave them out on the kitchen counter where you can easily see and use helpful for anyone who them. Some people find that food scales which show ounces, grams, wants to better control or both are also useful. This is especially important when you start their blood glucose by your meal plan because your eyes are often "bigger than your stomach. But unfortunately, it takes a while for the Im full signal to reach It helps them balance the your brain. You might be surprised at the portion inject with the number of sizes of some packaged foods. And after a while, I noticed two surprising things: I felt good, and I was enjoying myself! When you combine regular exercise with eating well and medication, you can expect to feel better, have fewer complications, and live a longer and healthier life. As you lose excess body fat, you actually increase the number of insulin receptors on your cells and improve your bodys ability to Actually, people with use insulin. The chance of developing atherosclerosis and other problems that can cause heart key is balancing physical attacks and strokes. It can give you a spring in your step and make sure your blood glucose boost your mood. If you have type 2 diabetes, exercise when combined with a meal plan may allow you to control your diabetes without medication. It only takes a few small changes to increase your level of activity each day (see the text at right for ideas). But to help control your diabetes, and to see other benefits, such as losing weight, you need scheduled exercise sessions. Here are a few answers to some common exercise questions: How much exercise is enough? Aim for at least 150 minutes of moderate aerobic activity a week or 30 minutes most days of the week. If you need to lose weight, aim for 250 to 300 minutes a week or 45 to 60 minutes or more each day. Examples include brisk walking, jogging, swimming, or using equipment such as a treadmill or stationary bike. Start with whatever activity you like and Not all of your daily activity think you can stick with. It also helps with weight loss activity to your lifestyle: and weight maintenance. Include strength training work with weights or Take the stairs instead of weight training machines, resistance bands, and tubes 2 to 3 times per week. If youve been inactive for some time, you may not be able to exercise much Walk whenever you can, at first. Exercise during New research shows that even if youre getting the recommended amount of commercial breaks. Breaking up sitting time with short amounts of walking has been shown to At work, use lunch hours improve glucose and insulin levels. Heres how to protect yourself: and coffee breaks to take a walk around the building. If you have to sit a lot Make social occasions more at work or school, try to stand up and move around every 20 or 30 minutes. Since they know your medical history and current level of fitness, they can help you set reasonable goals. They can also teach you to balance increased physical activity with changes in food choices and medication timing or doses. If blood glucose is below your recommended range, eat a carbohydrate snack before starting to exercise. Check blood glucose levels every 30 to 45 minutes while cant sing a song without exercising. Eat quick energy, low-fat snacks as You might be perspiring needed to keep your blood glucose within your target range. Your blood glucose levels may continue to drop for several not dripping with sweat. Thats why you might want to continue monitoring Your muscles may feel at two-hour intervals, for up to 18 hours after exercise. Snack as a little tired, but theyre needed to keep your levels where you want them. While you exercise, make You feel invigorated, sure you drink enough water its easy to get dehydrated. Always carry some sort of diabetes Whats the biggest risk of identification, such as a medical alert bracelet or a wallet card that can exercising? Studies show that being physically fit improves your health in a number of important ways including lowering your heart disease risk. If you exercise hard, eating extra carbohydrates alone may not keep your How to exercise safely (continued) blood glucose in your target range. Begin each session at a team if you can use less gentle pace, then go on to more vigorous activity after youve warmed insulin before exercise. If you exercise all week and sit dont happen during the peak around all weekend, you may find that the sudden lack of activity causes time for insulin absorption.
The classic triad of skin pigmentation advair diskus 500mcg, diabetes and liver disease (bronze diabetes) occurs in a minority of patients and is a late stage of the disease advair diskus 250mcg. These iron tests increase with age and are more abnormal in males than females because of the regular menstrual blood loss in women 250 mcg advair diskus. Serum ferritin increases with body iron stores but is commonly elevated with fatty liver advair diskus 100 mcg, daily alcohol consumption and chronic inflammation 100 mcg advair diskus. Diagnosis The diagnosis of hemochromatosis was previously confirmed by liver biopsy 500 mcg advair diskus, which demonstrates marked parenchymal iron deposition with iron staining of the tissue advair diskus 250 mcg. This hepatocyte deposition of iron is to be distinguished from secondary (non-genetic) causes of iron- overload (Table 2) advair diskus 100mcg, by the resence of excess iron deposition in the reticuloendothelial system 250mcg advair diskus. The hepatic iron concentration and the hepatic iron index (hepatic iron concentration/age) can be helpful in distinguishing genetic hemochromatosis from the increased iron overload that is seen in other chronic liver diseases such as alcoholic liver disease and chronic hepatitis C advair diskus 500 mcg. Genetic testing has led to a re-evaluation of the role of liver biopsy in hemochromatosis and biopsy has moved from a diagnostic test done in most cases to a prognostic test done in selected cases with liver First Principles of Gastroenterology and Hepatology A. Genetic testing is particularly useful in the evaluation of a patient with other risk factors for iron overload such as alcoholic liver disease or viral hepatitis (Table 3). Hepatic elastography may be a new tool to detect liver fibrosis without the need for a liver biopsy. Interpretation of genetic testing for hemochromatosis C282Y homozygote This is the classical genetic pattern that is seen in > 90% of typical cases. Expression of disease ranges from no evidence of iron overload to massive iron overload with organ dysfunction. Siblings have a one-in-four chance of being affected and should have genetic testing. If iron studies are normal, false positive genetic testing or a non-expressing homozygote should be considered. C282Y / H63D Compound heterozygote This patient carries one copy of the major mutation and one copy of the minor mutation. A small percentage of compound heterozygotes have been found to have mild to moderate iron overload. Severe iron overload is usually seen in the setting of another concomitant risk factor (alcoholism, viral hepatitis). This pattern is seen in about 10% of the Caucasian population and is usually associated with normal iron studies. In rare cases the iron studies are high in the range expected in a homozygote rather than a heterozygote. These cases may carry an unknown hemochromatosis mutation and liver biopsy is helpful to determine the need for venesection therapy. A small percentage of these cases have been found to have mild to moderate iron overload. This pattern is seen in about 20% of the Caucasian population and is usually associated with normal iron studies. This pattern is so common in the general population that the presence of iron overload may be related to another risk factor. Liver biopsy may be required to determine the cause of the iron overload and the need for treatment in these cases. Genetic testing for new iron mutations in ferroportin, hepcidin, or hemojuvelin is not widely available. Shaffer 455 The heterozygote individual may have normal or minor derangements in iron metabolism that have no clinical significance. A patient that carries both the major mutation (C282Y) and the minor mutation (H63D) is called a compound heterozygote. Treatment The treatment of hemochromatosis involves the removal of excess body iron. Iron is best removed from the body by weekly or twice weekly phlebotomy of 500 mL of blood until the body iron stores are within normal limits. The duration of treatment varies with the age and sex of the patient but older males may require weekly venesections for over three years. A serum ferritin is measured every three months to assess progress and when the serum ferritin is in the low normal range (50 g/L), the frequency of venesections is decreased to three or four per year. The most common cause of death is liver failure and/or hepatocellular carcinoma once cirrhosis has become established. Siblings of the patient with hemochromatosis must be screened with serum ferritin, transferrin saturation and genetic testing as the siblings have a one-in four chance of being affected. Genetic testing can now identify heterozygotes so the screening of a spouse with genetic testing can be helpful to predict the risk in children. Screening of the general population for hemochromatosis has found many genetic mutations but not much clinical disease. Genetic screening has the potential to identify cases at birth but raises ethical issues such as genetic discrimination. Chelating agents such as desferoxamine (parenteral) and deferasirox (oral) are reserved for the patient with iron overload secondary to an iron loading anemia such as thalassemia. Future research is in progress to look for new genes that may cause iron overload, or may modify the clinical expression of hemochromatosis. Introduction The liver is a highly vascular organ; receiving 25% of cardiac output. Hence, it is highly vulnerable to circulatory disturbances causing diminished perfusion. These include conditions related to underlying heart disease and hemodynamic instability such as congestive hepatopathy (also known as cardiac cirrhosis) and ischemic hepatitis (or shock liver). Table 1 provides a summary of the main clinical presentation and management of the five major vascular disorders of the liver. Hepatic artery Hemorrhagic Angiography is embolization in Telangectasia, gold standard. Ischemic Hepatitis and Congestive Hepatopathy Ischemic hepatitis (or shock liver) is a condition of acute hypoperfusion of the liver, usually due to shock or hypotension, resulting in diffuse hepatocyte injury. Ischemic hepatitis can also be due to thrombosis of the hepatic artery, such as in sickle cell crisis. Only acute viral hepatitis and acetaminophen injury is known to cause such a high elevation in these hepatic enzymes (reflecting hepatocellular damage). Liver pathology is characterized by Zone 3 injury of the hepatic acinus that can extend to mid-zonal areas with severe and prolonged ischemia. Ischemic hepatic often co-exists with congestive hepatopathy, and many of the clinical features are similar. Congestive hepatopathy refers to hepatic injury due to passive congestion from right-sided heart failure (i. The diagnosis of congestive hepatopathy is suspected from the clinical presentation of right-sided heart failure, jaundice, and tender hepatomegaly. This liver disorder is more important as an index of the severity of heart failure than as diagnosis by itself, and management is focused on treating the underlying heart disease. These risk factors often occur in patients with a background history of an inherited or acquired pro-thrombotic condition. In chronic portal vein thrombosis (aka portal cevernoma), a network of collateral veins with hepatopetal flow connects the patent portion of the portal vein upstream from the thrombus, to the patent portion downstream. The degree of collateral flow varies from patient to patient, but complete occlusion is associated with the development of portal hypertension and portosystemic collaterals. Retrospective studies have shown that anticoagulation therapy is associated with improved rates of recanalization. It is generally recommended that at least 3 months of anticoagulation be given, and that permanent therapy be considered in patients with permanent prothrombotic conditions. Gastrointestinal variceal bleeding is better tolerated, as patients are often younger with preserved liver function. Approximately 50% of patients hepatic encepatholopathy, and 10% present with hepatopulmonary syndrome. Liver enzymes are usually normal, with only mild alteration in coagulation factors. Ultrasound will show obstruction of the vessel lumen, with distention of the portal vein. Shaffer 461 replacement with serpiginous structures or collateral veins within the main portal vein. Doppler ultrasound of the vessels shows the absence or reduced flow within the vessel lumen. Provided there is no major contraindication, anticoagulation should only be considered in non-cirrhotic patients with a known pro-thrombotic condition. Diagnostic imaging is not diagnostic by itself, but Doppler ultrasound is recommended to rule out other causes and will often demonstrate hepatomegaly and ascites in support the diagnosis. There are no randomized controlled trials to definitively support the Defibrotide. A liver biopsy is usually not required; its main yield is to show congestion, liver cell loss and centrilobular fibrosis. The clinical strategy proposed by expert consensus treatment includes anticoagulation (usually indefinitely in persons with a permanent underlying risk factor for thrombosis), supportive care, management of portal hypertension complications, and treatment of the underlying condition if applicable. The liver had widespread microscopic and macroscopic vascular malformation, resulting in three types of functional shunts: arteriovenous, portovenous and arterioportal. The typical clinical presentation is a female ~age 30, with high output heart failure due to a hyperdynamic circulatory state, portal hypertension and biliary ischemia, all of which can occur simultaneously or successively. Suggestive clinical characteristics include epistaxis, mucosal telangiectasies, as well as family history of stroke or intracerebral hemorrhage (from cerebral arteriovenous malformations). In difficult cases, genetic testing can be done for the most common coding sequence mutations. The liver has widespread microscopic and macroscopic vascular malformations, resulting in three types of functional shunts: arteriovenous, portovenous and arterioportal. A liver biopsy is not recommended due to potential risk and frequent problems with histological misinterpretation. Hepatic artery embolization is only considered for patients with intractable heart failure who have failed maximal medical therapy, and who are not candidates for liver transplantation. Liver transplantation is the only definitive curative therapy, and should be considered for acute biliary necrosis syndrome, intractable heart failure, or portal hypertension. Metastases from cancers of the lung, colon or breast are relatively common and the prognosis is related primarily to the underlying type of cancer. This chapter will review the diagnostic features and management of common benign and malignant neoplasms of the liver. Cystic Neoplasms of the Liver Hepatic cysts are relatively common, especially in individuals over the age of fifty. Solitary cysts are reported to occur in 3-5% of the population and are four times more common in women. All other potential explanations for symptoms should be ruled out before pain, bloating or early satiety is First Principles of Gastroenterology and Hepatology A. Percutaneous aspiration is associated with a high recurrence rate unless combined with sclerotherapy. Laparoscopic surgical fenestration is usually preferred if the lesions are very large or complicated. Selected patients with massive hepatomegaly may have benefit from surgical resection or fenestration but this often only provides temporary relief of symptoms. Liver transplantation, with combined renal transplant if there is coexisting renal failure, is sometimes needed. A randomized placebo controlled trial has demonstrated a benefit long acting octreotide to slow the progression of liver and kidney cysts in these patients. Cystadenomas are rare cystic liver tumours which are mucin filled and often have a solid (papillary or stromal) component in the wall. Even if asymptomatic, they should be removed surgically, because rarely these benign tumours may progress to malignant cystadenocarcinoma. These parasites have part of their life cycle in dogs (definitive host) and sheep (intermediate host). The disease is endemic in sheep raising areas in the Middle East, Asia, Africa, South America and Australia. Immigrants from these regions with complex liver cysts should have echinococcal serology ordered. Patients should receive therapy with albendazole before surgical or percutaneous therapy is performed. Carolis disease is a congenital abnormality of the biliary system that often presents in childhood. Patients may have recurrent bouts of cholangitis and may form intrahepatic biliary stones. The condition can also be associated with congenital hepatic fibrosis, which may lead to liver failure and portal hypertension. Blood cultures should be drawn and broad-spectrum First Principles of Gastroenterology and Hepatology A. Shaffer 466 antibiotics should be started to cover both aerobic and anaerobic gram negative and positive bacteria. Typically, antibiotics are delivered intravenously for the first two weeks, followed by at least another 4 weeks of oral antibiotics. Amoebic liver abscess usually occurs several months after returning from travel to endemic areas. The protozoan Entameba histolytica can cause diarrhea (amoebic colitis) and liver abscess (usually single, large, and loculated), although the two rarely present at the same time.
The incidence of either sexual sadism or sexual masochism is unknown but both appear to be more common in individuals of middle and upper socioeco- nomic groups 250 mcg advair diskus. Baumeister estimates that between 5% and 10% of the population engage in some form of recreational sadomasochistic activity 100 mcg advair diskus, where light discomfort 500 mcg advair diskus, but not severe pain or injury 100mcg advair diskus, is commonly inicted (38) 500mcg advair diskus. Far fewer have engaged in sex play where sadomasochistic fantasies are acted out on a regular and preferred basis advair diskus 250 mcg. Nevertheless advair diskus 500mcg, the prevalence of sadomasochistic social clubs suggests that these preferences are not rare advair diskus 500 mcg. Surveys of sadomasochistic magazine readers and club members suggest that masochistic interests are more common than sadistic interests 250mcg advair diskus. The actual behaviors advair diskus 100mcg, as well as their intensity, associated with sadomaso- chistic preferences vary greatly (39). Spanking or being spanked is common, often using implements such as whips, canes, or hairbrushes. More rarely, acute pain is inicted, such as by apply- ing burning candles to bare skin or piercing the skin with sharp objects. Although it is commonly asserted that sadomasochistic partners maintain tightly controlled parameters to avoid serious injury, activities can get out of control and occasion- ally do lead to injury. Such behaviors underscore, in the eyes of some theorists, both control and hostility as core elements in sadomasochism. Among the most dangerous of activities are those that involve choking and strangling. Fetishism and Transvestic Fetishism Fetishism Fetishism was rst described in 1886 by Richard von Krafft-Ebing and in 1887 by French psychologist Alfred Binet (4143). The essential feature is the necessity for an inanimate object to achieve or maintain sexual arousal, either in fantasy or in actual behavior. The fetish is often preferred or required for arousal, egosyn- tonic, and rarely the cause of personal distress. Individuals may experience sexual dysfunction when engaging sexually without use of the fetishistic object or fantasy. Fetishism is demarcated from paraphilia not otherwise specied by the exclusion of body parts from the denition of fetishism. Fetishism is denition- ally limited to the use of nonliving objects and often features masturbation while holding, rubbing, or smelling the object, whereas fetish-like preferences related to the human body or other living creatures are generally coded as paraphilia not otherwise specied (5). These categorical distinctions and their rationale are unclear and are also the source of professional debate (44). In this conceptualization, foot fetishism and other part object paraphilias are coded as fetishes (302. There is very limited data about fetishistic individuals, since they rarely seek treatment. A review by Chalkley and Powell examined the clinical characteristics of 48 fetishists (9). The sample was predominantly male; 22% were homosexual; the majority described preferences for multiple fetishistic objects; and soft textured fabrics were more arousing than hard textures such as rubber. Discussion groups related to diapers and enemas were also found to be common (46). Mason has pointed out that a century ago objects made of velvet and silk were preferred, whereas today rubber and leather appear to be more common (44). A brief Internet search dispels any doubt regarding the high prevalence and diversity of fetishistic curiosity in modern culture. Paraphilias 303 pages, offering both the curious and the desperate virtual buffet of fetishistic opportunities. Transvestic Fetishism In transvestic fetishism, cross-dressing in feminine apparel is fetishistically used, or the fantasy of such via autogynephilicmeaning love of selfimagery. The fantasies and behaviors must cause distress or impairment in psychosocial or occupational functioning. The diagnosis is subcategorized to specify whether gender dysphoria, or discomfort with ones biologic sexual des- ignation, is or is not present. Some transvestites develop marked distress about their biologic designation and seek sexual reassignment, whereas others express no such wish. Other cross-dressers engage in some bisexual or homosexual experiences, although their basic orientation is heterosexual (50). Still others are effeminate homo- sexuals whose cross-dressing is in no way fetishistic. Many transvestic individuals do not seek psychiatric evaluation or do so only if discovered by a spouse or family member or if they become gender dys- phoric. Thus, knowledge is extremely limited regarding the phenomenological features of fetishistic cross-dressers who do not seek psychiatric assistance. When fetishistic cross-dressers seek evaluation for gender dysphoria or for sexual reassignment surgery, they often minimize their arousal patterns when cross-dressed. Resources such as local transsexual support groups and Internet sites may counsel individuals to minimize disclosures that might jeopardize their hopes for surgical or hormonal reassignment. Thus, patients are increasingly savvy about what is expected during psychiatric assessment. The clinician must be aware of these phenomena and that fetishistic arousal is often denied. A survey of subscribers to a magazine for transvestites offers a broader picture of men reporting themselves to be cross-dressers (51). The vast majority were heterosexual, although almost one-third had some homosexual experiences. Cross-dressing was reported to begin before the age of 10 in two-thirds and the majority noted that cross-dressing allowed them to express a different and pre- ferred side of their personality. The respondents, 57% of whom were above the age of 40, reported that they experienced sexual excitement and orgasm while cross-dressed only occasionally. A dis- tinct minority felt themselves to be a woman trapped inside a mans body, while three-quarters felt that they were men with a feminine side. The majority felt that they were equally masculine and feminine and almost one-half were interested in utilizing female hormones. Only 17% would have sexual reassignment, if poss- ible, and 45% had at some time consulted a psychologist or psychiatrist. When compared with a similar survey 25 years earlier, this gure reected a dramatic difference in those endorsing help by psychotherapy, perhaps suggesting greater under- standing of the disorder by the mental health profession (52). Some males, collo- quially designated as drag queens, cross-dress to mimic feminine behavior satirically rather than fetishistically. Such individuals do not meet criteria for the diagnosis of transvestic fetishism (53). It is important to note that for some, the need for erotic arousal abates over time. As the erotic cross-dresser ages, his cross-dressing may be used more to reduce anxiety than to produce sexual arousal (54). The personality proles of fetishistic cross-dressers who present as patients reveal elevated rates of neuroticism as well as lower rates of agreeableness. This may suggest a vulnerability for affective distress and the propensity for disagree- ableness, which may foster marital discord (56). In a nonclinical cohort of cross- dressers attending a weekend seminar, personality characteristics were found to be no different than normal controls, with the exception of higher reported levels of openness to fantasy (57). These data suggest that the cross-dresser who seeks treatment may be signicantly different from the nonpatient transvestite. Studies indicate that $50% of applicants for surgical sex reassignment have histories of transvestic fetishism (58). The gender dysphoric transvestite may make a dramatic presentation with acute gender dysphoria and the wish for sexual reassignment. Therefore, thorough understanding of these disorders is critical for clinicians (58,59). It must be considered that gender dysphoria is a transient state phenomenon related to loss, trauma, or comorbid state (29). Such cases demand consideration of aggressive antidepressant treatment and restraint from supporting sex reassignment as a rst line solution. For some trans- vestites, an initial optimism about reassignment is replaced by depression when issues of loss emerge or if illusions about the nancial feasibility of reassignment are shattered. Paraphilias 305 to remain cognizant of the possibility of emergent deeper levels of dysphoria and self-destructive thoughts. Not uncommonly, complex underlying themes and comorbid conditions become more apparent as treatment progresses, suggesting the pursuit of a long-term treatment approach combining psychotherapy and medication. Pedophilia Pedophilia, which literally means love of children, is a complicated and distressing disorder encompassing both psychiatric and forensic spheres. It is a paraphilic syndrome characterizing individuals who experience recurrent and intense erotic fantasies, urges, or behaviors involving a prepubescent (13 years of age or younger) child. Also, to be diagnosed with pedophilia, an individual must be at least 16 years of age and at least 5 years older than the victim. Excluded from this category are older adolescents who are involved sexually with 12- or 13-year-olds. These speciers are best viewed as descriptive as opposed to reecting discreet categories (10). In a general population survey, 12% of men and 17% of women reported that as a child they were sexually touched by an adult (60). Not all child abuse is motivated by a preferred attraction to younger individuals. Some individuals sexually abuse chil- dren in an opportunistic manner, when intoxicated, or secondary to dementia or mental retardation. Still others are indiscriminate in their partner choice due to excessive drive and loss of impulse control. These individuals may have sex with any available or exploitable person, regardless of age, but are not motivated by a nonnormative age attraction. Therefore, it is critical for clinicians to note that not all child sexual offenses are pedophilic. The essential feature of pedophilia is a primary erotic attachment to children, not criminal-mindedness. Many individuals with pedo- philia suffer from fantasies and urges but never engage sexually with a child. Many pedophilic individuals describe romantic love and affection for the children to whom they are also sexually attracted and may fantasize about being in a committed, loving relationship with the child. As abhorrent as this may be to others, an individual with pedophilia is also a sex offender only if he engages in the illegal act of sexual behavior with a child. In and of itself, pedophilia is an unfortunate psychosexual afiction, but not criminal. Most indi- viduals with pedophilia would be grateful to experience more normative sexual attractions. Consistent with that gure, it appears that individuals with pedophilia are predominantly but not exclusively male (62). Some individuals endorse primary erotic fantasies of children but never act upon such urges, including by the use of pornography. For some, use of child pornography appears to fuel the under- lying pedophilic urges and increases the risk of escalation from urge to action. The growth of the Internet and electronic access to child pornography has led to recent legal quagmires regarding exploitation of real vs. Possession of child pornography, including in a downloaded format on ones per- sonal computer, is a criminal felony. However, a recent supreme court decision reversed some aspects of the Child Pornography Prevention Act by ruling that there is no evidence that computer-generated images of children are linked to harm to real children and that regulation of such images is an infringement of pro- tected free speech (63). Similarly, in a recent case involving a patient of one of the authors, in the course of soliciting sex with a supposed minor via the Internet, the individual was entrapped by a federal agent posing as the minor. The charges were later dismissed on grounds of their being no real victim and that prosecution could not be justied on the basis of a virtual victim. Like the paraphilias, they are repetitive, intrusive, and persist for at least 6 months. Kafkas suggested paraphilia-related disorders include egodystonic com- pulsive masturbation, protracted promiscuity, and dependence on pornography. This conceptualization has not met with consensus and it remains unclear how such categorical distinctions improve the current classication system. Studies have identied broad areas of inuence as well as some specic risk factors, but precise underlying mechanisms and comprehensive theories of causality await elucidation. The most current thinking assumes that etiology is based in a complex multifactorial equation reecting both biology and environment. Psychoanalytic Models of Etiology Psychoanalytic writers posit that early life experiences are fundamentally related to the development of the paraphilias. Stoller asserted that vengeful hostility, in response to the young childs ambivalent struggle to separate from his mother, is the core of all perversion (67). Psychoanalytic View of Fetishism Psychoanalytic theory suggests that fetishism is due to unconscious fears and a sense of inadequacy related to early childhood experience (68,69). Freud pro- posed that fetishism originates in the phallic phase of psychosexual development as a male child experiences anxiety about his mothers missing penis, for which he nds a symbolic object, thus resolving his fear and restoring an erotic attach- ment to his mother (70). The memory of sexual pleasure as a mechanism to cope with stress becomes xated and eventually transmutes into repetitive behavior. Psychoanalytic View of Transvestic Fetishism In the orthodox psychoanalytic view, cross-dressing is a defense against cas- tration anxiety.
Furthermore advair diskus 100 mcg, the authors theorized that there may be a common biological etiology to the two dis- orders 500 mcg advair diskus, or advair diskus 500 mcg, that affective psychopathology may contribute to the pathogenesis of the desire disorder 100mcg advair diskus. Bipolar Disorder There is little information on sexual dysfunctions in untreated euthymic patients who have a bipolar disorder 250mcg advair diskus. However 250 mcg advair diskus, manic patients are often described as hypersexual but the meaning is often not clear advair diskus 250mcg. Schizophrenia Finding an untreated population of people with this disorder is unusual as is any attempt to establish the nature of sexual desire in this condition that is separate from medications 100 mcg advair diskus. Drugs General Comments Unfortunately 500mcg advair diskus, few double-blind placebo-controlled trials exist to guide clini- cians in understanding the sexual impact of medications advair diskus 500mcg. As a result, much of the information that follows is based on less rened information as, for example, case reports. In general, there is often great difculty in differentiating the sexual conse- quences of a disorder from side effects of the medication used in treatment. When thinking about a sexual desire problem, attempting this separation requires care in determining that it did not exist before drug treatment began (i. Likewise, one would expect drug-related sexual problems to occur under all circumstances rather than some (i. Last, one would want to determine that the diminished sexual desire would not be better explained by the onset of an illness or exposure to an environmental stress. Men who are taking antipsychotic drugs generally complain of various sexual side effects including loss of sexual desire (although interference with ejaculation seems particularly common). Antianxiety Agents Alprazolam (Xanax) was reported to sometimes result in diminished sexual desire in both men and women (44). Antidepressants The incidence of sexual dysfunction generally with antidepressants is estimated at 3050%. Sexual dysfunctions generally are said to be less with bupropion, mirtazapine, moclobemide, and maybe reboxetine. Mood Stabilizers Lithium may result in diminished sexual desire in a minority of patients. Several drugs are used in the treatment of prostate cancer, a disease which is often androgen-dependent. Male Hypoactive Sexual Desire Disorder 95 eliminate the effect of androgens which, in turn, has a predictable markedly nega- tive impact on sexual desire. Cancer Chemotherapy Drugs Cytotoxic drugs often have substantial effects on the gonads. Loss of sexual desire often accompanies their use and may be, at least in part, a result of hormo- nal changes. The treatment of some cancers in men might involve the use of anti- androgenic drugs resulting in a substantial decrease in T. The picture is often confounded by the appearance of sexual disorders associated with epilepsy itself as well as with the paucity of published information on this entire subject. Chronic use of heroin and all other opiates results in diminished sexual desire, possibly related to low T levels. Madonna/Prostitute Syndrome Freud described a man choosing one woman for love and another for sexual activity and seemingly unable to fuse the two (45). Ill Partner Severe medical and psychiatric illness can alter partner-related sexual desire. Case Study Tanya and Phillip (not their real names) were each 27 years old and married for the rst time for 3 years. They did not have children, did not smoke or use street drugs, and neither had had major health problems in the past. They described themselves as Christian and although they did not have intercourse before marriage, they could not keep their hands off each other during that time and enthusiastically engaged in a variety of sexual activities. Their sexual experiences in the early years of their marriage were uncomplicated and highly pleasurable to both. When they were initially referred (because of lack of sexual desire on Phillips part), she had been taking maintenance medication for the previous 12 months. When Phillip was seen alone (they were initially seen together), he pro- fessed his continuing love for Tanya but at the same time said that she was not the same person whom he married. He hoped that their active and pleasurable sexual experiences would return and was puzzled by his own diminished sexual desire. He found himself thinking about sexual matters and fantasizing about old girlfriends. He had masturbated regularly before he and Tanya met but not through their courtship and early part of their marriage. He had begun mastur- bating again in recent months and contrary to his expectations, the frequency had not diminished. Although little exists in the literature on the sexual impact on partners when one of them becomes ill, the syndrome of diminished sexual interest in the well partner is familiar to sexuality professionals who work with the physically ill in rehabilitation centers (B. Male Hypoactive Sexual Desire Disorder 97 generally perceived as perpetually sexually interested and ready in a way that is ordinarily unaffected by environmental circumstances. The very fact that men are so inuenced by severe illness in a partner suggests that this general perception is exaggerated. In the context of Levines tripartite denition of sexual desire, men in this instance lose the motive to engage in sexual activity with their partner (even though the drive may continue to exist) (2). Relationship Discord From both the point of view of clinical impression as well as clinical research, anger resulting from relationship discord seems to have a different effect on sexual desire in men compared with women. Twenty-four men and an equal number of women, all university stu- dents, were asked to indicate their level of sexual desire in relation to audiotapes describing different sexual events (46). When subjects were presented with a stimulus that provoked anger, the authors found that signicantly fewer men (21%) than women (79%), indicated that they would have terminated the sexual encounter. Sex-related phenomena associated with hypogonadism are described in the Hormones section of this chapter. As well, menopause is associated with the irreversible end of reproductive life, whereas in men spermatogenesis and fertility continue into old age. In the opinion of some observers, trying to equate the two is rather questionable (23). To explain the desire change, a great deal of emphasis has been given to laboratory values, especially alterations in T. Only one study of aging men seems to have examined various manifestations of sexual desire. Male Hypoactive Sexual Desire Disorder 99 Etiology In addition to hormones, many other changes take place in male physiology which contribute to the aging process. In the absence of a thorough assessment (history, physical and laboratory exams when appropriate), the clin- ician is actually considering a presenting symptom rather than a diagnosis. In this circumstance, psychotherapy seems indicated but depending on the apparent etiology, could be provided individually or together with a partner. This amounts to asserting that all people are more or less equal in their sexual endow- ments, and ignores the existence of individual variation. His commentary was critical and reected sub- stantial discouragement in that he found no controlled studies with a homo- geneous sample in which psychotherapy was the mainstay of treatment and none which included both drug/hormone treatment and psychotherapy. The latter investigation reported on a 3-month follow-up of 152 couples in which at least one person had a desire difculty as part of the presenting complaint. In com- paring couples in which either the man or the woman presented with a desire dif- culty, the authors concluded that initially there was a lower rate of sexual activity when the man was the identied patient, that men tended to initiate sexual activity more often, and that men were more likely to have a situational and acquired form of desire difculty. With a behavioral form of treatment, the authors found at follow-up that signicant treatment gains had been made and maintained. In addition, they also claimed that the lifetime/acquired and global/situational distinction did not predict therapeutic outcome. In spite of the fact that a diagnostic subtyping system was adopted, it was inexplic- ably not included in the report. A behavioral form of treatment was used and the results were reported separately for men and women. Male Hypoactive Sexual Desire Disorder 101 contact and frequency of sexual contact, clearly demonstrate a lack of sustained success for both men and women. In a clear statement concerning the treat- ment of sexual desire problems, the authors concluded that no controlled treatment-outcome studies were found for the treatment of. Another looked at 40 couples in which the men experienced erectile dysfunction and/or loss of sexual interest, and compared the effectiveness of three treatments: weekly couple counseling, monthly couple counseling, and T (56). Subjects were divided into two groups, with high or low levels of sexual interest. Each group was randomly allocated to (i) testoster- one or placebo therapy and (ii) weekly or monthly counseling. Results indicated no statistically signicant group differences in initial clinical ratings and substantial relapse between the rst and second follow-up in the erections ratings and sexual interest ratings. The investigation concerned the use of bupropion in a nondepressed population (57). The idea of using bupropion therapeutically resulted from the fact that it is a norepinephrine and dopamine reuptake inhibitor and that dopamine is thought to facilitate many aspects of sexual function including desire. All of the patients had low desire and 14/25 men had another sexual dysfunction diagnosis as well. Signicantly, more (63%) of the bupropion-treated group reported being much or very much improved (vs. Unfortunately, results were not reported separately for men and women (an exception being the statement that more men (86%) than women (44%) showed. This investigation involved a double-blind crossover comparison of T and placebo in a group of men with normal circulating T levels (59). Ten men complained principally of loss of sexual interest and 10 men complained of erectile failure. The authors found a signicant increase in sexual interest pro- duced by T in the rst group but qualied this by saying that in only 3/10 of the subjects was it considered to be an adequate form of treatment, and in the others, the changes were either small or did not generalize to the sexual relation- ship. For both reasons, there is limited bioavailability via the oral route and so other methods of delivery have been developed: injec- tions and transdermal (patch, and gel). An exception to comments about oral delivery is testosterone undecanoate (available in Europe and Canada at the time this is written) which is absorbed via the lymphatic system and is therefore only partially inactivated in the liver. Testosterone enanthate and testosterone cyprionate can be given by injec- tion, usually 150200 mg given every 23 weeks (amount and frequency depends on blood level monitoring). Transdermal methods are advantageous in that one could immediately stop the drug if that seems desirable. Treatment with T is approved for the care of clearly established male hypogonadismat any age. Male Hypoactive Sexual Desire Disorder 103 middle-aged or older men who may have a T level in the low range of a young adult but may also have one or more symptoms that are common both to hypogonadism and aging. In the meantime, clin- icians are searching for therapies, and an enthusiastic and perhaps overly optimistic citizenry is eager to not only treat diseases associated with aging but also possibly delay the timing of their initial onset (p. Some believe that a biopsy should be done before initiation of hormonal treatment. Sleep apnea: Exacerbation of pre-existing sleep apnea; special attention should be given to men who are overweight, heavy smokers, or who have chronic obstructive lung disease. Body composition: Decrease in body fat; increase in lean body mass; and change in some aspects of muscle strength. Mood and cognition: Improvement in spatial cognition; improvement in sense of well-being. Hyperprolactinemia Depending on the cause, hyperprolactinemia can be treated medically or surgically. When the etiology is a prolactin-secreting tumor of the pituitary gland (pro- lactinoma), then surgery becomes an option. The sooner such a diagnosis is made the better since 40% of patients already have visual eld defects at the time of presentation. Most commonly, hyperprolactinemia is treated medically by using dopa- mine D2 agonists such as bromocriptine initiated at 2. Cancer chemotherapy: Androgen replacement therapy is often suggested to men who have received high dose chemotherapy associ- ated with bone marrow transplantation. In spite of this attempt at equation, evidence about just how men and women differ, especially in the crucial area of sexual desire, is rapidly accumulating. Although doubtlessly unintentional, investigations of sexual desire in women have shed light on the same in men. These observations have insinuated that the pattern of sexual desire resulting in arousal is more true of men than women (where desire might follow arousal), and that sexual desire tends to be quantitatively greater in men. However, sexual desire manifests in different ways (both psycholo- gically and behaviorally), and it is far from clear just who is included in this 16%. Does it represent, for example, men who have sexual thoughts but do not act on them? Men who had sexual thoughts and feelings in the past but not nowadays (acquired and generalized)? Men who do not have those feelings now and never have thought much about sexual issues (lifelong and generalized)? The tendency of sexual desire in men to decline as they become older has been repeatedly demon- strated. Or, conver- sely, should we look at the age-related decline not as pathological, but rather as a normal part of the process of becoming older? Those procedures will help in the process of subtyping, which, in turn, is essential for determining etiol- ogy and treatment. For example, if a man nds that he is completely absorbed sexually at the beginning of a new relationship and not otherwise, or only when watching a computer screen display- ing engaging women without clothes, then obviously his sexual desire is quite intact but is highly focussed.
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