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Those with heavy debt often moonlight to supplement their income; however forzest 20 mg, this extra workload can exacerbate physical and mental stress forzest 20mg. This is a compilation of This chapter will your current assets and liabilities; the difference describe the key components and benefts of comprehen- between them represents your equity or net worth 20 mg forzest. This highlights your cash in outline key components of debt management 20mg forzest, and fows (sources of income) and outfows (expenses) . This analysis of your resources and discretionary spending may help you to fnd ways to improve your fnancial position . This analysis A fourth-year resident would like to lease a new car but allows you to assess whether your life and disability doesn t know if they can afford it . The resident has made insurance coverage is meeting your goals in securing a budget , but has trouble sticking to it . The resident feels a source of income replacement for your loved ones that they do not have a good grasp of where their money in the event of your death , or for you and your de- goes. The resident would like to have a better understand- pendants in the event that through accident or illness ing of the basics of fnancial planning so that they can you become unable to earn an income. Goals and objectives Comprehensive fnancial planning With the help of your fnancial planner, you will formulate An evaluation of their current and potential fnancial resources fnancial goals and objectives in relation to a measurable time can help individuals develop a plan that will help them to frame. This will mean analyzing existing restrictions on short- and mid-term goals and long-term aspirations. Comprehensive fnancial planning can be broken down into six basic steps: Recommendations 1. Implementation and follow-up Current situation The steps and activities included in your fnancial plan should You will share with the fnancial consultant certain personal be described and prioritized to help you to understand and fol- information (e. You will be asked for other relevant by the professional and personal events that unfold in your information, such as your banking institution and the contact life. To reach your long-term goals and have a secure fnancial information of your accountant and lawyer. Cash 0 To purchase a desirable home within the frst Medical library 1,500 fve years after residency. Computer 2,500 To sell the resident s old car (which is barely Used car 5,000 working) and use the money to decrease the Total 9,000 monthly payment on a new car lease. Liabilities ($) In reviewing the cash fow statement, the resident realizes Credit card debt 500 that by spending less on clothing and restaurant meals Line of credit 50,500 they would be able to reach these objectives sooner. The Total 51,000 resident obtains written fnancial recommendations and plans to start implementing them in the near future. The Net worth $(-42,000) fnancial consultant and the resident have a follow-up meeting in three months to evaluate progress and to ad- Because of the signifcant debt they accrue during their dress any questions that arise. The purpose of the Summary resident s net worth statement is to take a snapshot of their Because of the need to simultaneously manage debt, create current fnancial position that will provide a starting-point cash fow and prepare for the future, professional fnancial for subsequent planning. Ideally, an application for a line of credit or an increase to a line of credit should be Case discussed beforehand with a fnancial planner. A resident who will be completing training in six months and their spouse, who is also in the last year of residency, The interest rate on unsecured loans offered to medical stu- don t have any children yet and live in a condominium dents and residents can be as low as the prime lending rate if owned by the resident s in-laws. Interest rates on secured lated $60,000 in debt (on a personal line of credit) during liabilities such as a car loans are usually higher, ranging from training and has $20,000 in student loans. Here, interest rates can vary from 16 to 24 per cent of the balance, depending on the Introduction client s credit rating. Paying down a credit card balance by using In 2007, the average debt of Canadian medical residents at a personal line of credit can save 11 to 19 per cent of the the end of training was reported as $158,728 (Kondro 2007). Indeed, given rising tuition costs, debt during medical training has become a necessary evil for most residents. However, not Pros and cons of student loan consolidation all debt is the same, and proper debt management can lower All physicians can claim a federal tax credit (15 per cent in overall interest payments and help to speed up repayment. Interest paid are: for any other indebtedness, such as bank loans or lines of Canada and provincial student loans, credit, are not eligible for this credit. However, residents who are carrying with federal and/or provincial student loan authorities. This a signifcant debt load and are faced with a limited cash fow debt tends to be relatively favourable in terms of after-tax rates may wonder about the relative merits of paying down their and repayment options. Several fnal decision may be a matter of personal preference and of Canadian provinces have therefore pioneered programs to risk tolerance. Learning how different fnancial management defer interest on the provincial portion of medical resident practises can best ft a residents personal level of comfort and loans. The interest rates on federal and provincial student loans may be as high as two or three percentage points above the prime Negotiating with fnancial institutions lending rate. However, the interest paid on these loans has been Residents can save precious time and avoid unnecessary frustra- claimable as a federal tax credit since 1998. Most provinces tion by working with a fnancer who is familiar with physicians provide such tax credits as well. In consolidating all debts to the bank, the resi- from terms that are more advantageous than those normally dents will forfeit both federal and provincial tax credits. A fnancial consultant can provide If the student loans stay outside of the loan consolida- their physician clients with some useful advice in preparation tion, the residents will realize an after-tax interest rate of for a meeting with a fnancial institution s account manager. A credit rating is based mainly on an individual s history of debt repayment, The fnancial planner gave three alternatives to the resi- his or her current fnancial position (assets and liabilities) and dents on their debt management process. Because banks often place more emphasis on current credit rating than on future income potential, it is Focus on savings: If they both purchase $13,000 of crucial to maintain an excellent credit rating. Because credit ratings are based on a seven-year cycle, any late interest payments or failures to pay bills will have a negative Focus on reducing debt: After four years of practice impact on an individual s credit rating for some time. A fnancial consultant can provide advice on maintaining a good credit Combine strategies: By combining these strategies, rating. Trainees should be approach their fnancial institutions to consolidate their proactive with their money by negotiating with fnancial loans into a line of credit or term loan. Through appropri- ratings, they can negotiate a line of credit at interest rates ate fnancial planning all residents can secure fnancial as low as the prime lending rate. Tax Tips for the Medical However, caution should be used when considering con- Student, Resident and Fellow. The bank offers the resident and spouse the prime rate of four per cent on a line of credit to consolidate their indebtedness including their student loans, on which they have been paying prime plus three per cent. The bank s offer seems to be attractive, but after a closer look, the actual after-tax savings would be approximately 1. Logan C, Director Disability Services, Homewood Employee Health: personal conversation Canadian Medical Association. In Creating a Healthy Culture in Medicine: a Report From the 2004 Quality Worklife Quality Healthcare Collaborative. College of Family Physicians of Canada, Canadian Medical Association, Royal College of Physicians and Surgeons of Rich P. Global Business pdf and Economic Roundtable for Mental health College of Family Physicians of Canada, Canadian Medical 1-E. Promoting healthy partnerships in medical Intelligence: Key Readings on the Mayer and Salovey Model. Leadership in academic psychiatry: the vi- sion, the givens, and the nature of leaders. Balancing family and career: addressing the description of deans and students perceptions. Is that your pager or Stressful incidents, stress and coping strategies in the pre- mine: a survey of women academic family physicians in dual registration house offcer year. Inside/Outside: A Physician s Journey With Reading our way to more culturally appropriate care. Health problems and the use of health services among physicians: a review article with particular emphasis on 4-C. Physical activity and public health: Updated Faugier J, Lancaster J, Pickles D, Dobson K. Barriers to recommendation for adults from the American College of Sports healthy eating in the nursing profession: Part 2. Gratefulness, the Heart of Prayer: An hours: Effect of a nutrition based intervention. Toward a normative defnition of medical training, workload, fatigue and physical stress: A prospective professionalism. Workplace bullying, psychological distress, and job satisfaction in junior doctors. Job satisfaction and motivation among public roles and professional obligations. Journal of the physicians in academic medical centers: insights from a cross- American Medical Association. In Creating a Healthy Culture in Medicine: School of International Service: The American University. Physician Health: The Essential Guide to Understanding the Health Care Needs of Physicians. Physicians with and illness or disability Canadian Association of Physicians with Disabilities. The Centre for Professional Well-being Report from the 2008 International Conference on Physician www. Learn about the supports trainees can utilize locally, provincially, and nationally. If you re not sure, speak to your local health/ wellness resources or your provincial physician health program. Emphasize that the meeting is meant to be supportive, a mutual sharing of concern, and involving mutual brainstorming about next steps. Share the information from the relevant portions of this guide as well as contact information for clinical supports. Acknowledge that you are not in a role to act as their physician and ignore all urges to diagnose and treat. Offer them time off to attend to their health, your ongoing support, and your willingness to help them move forward. If your concerns involve patient care and safety consider your duty to the public as well as the trainee. Be prepared to cover all costs involved and also be reasonable in your expectations of the report. In general, you will only receive relevant diagnosis/recommenda- tions in an effort to respect the privacy of the learner. If you feel the trainee is at imminent risk of self harm or harm to others state your concern clearly and request they present to the emergency room. Welcome residents back to training in the context of the approval of their clinicians, appropriate documentation of health, a thoughtful return-to-work plan, and consideration of ongoing monitoring of health. Refect carefully on your leadership, that of your committee, and the overall culture of your Department. Procure an external consultant to collect qualitative and quantitative data about the health and wellness of your program. Invite them to present their fndings to the entire Department in a transparent fashion. Consider their recommendations carefully, including investigations/treatments and follow-up. Call your local health and wellness programs - they can often help you fnd a family physician or other clinical/non-clinical supports. Consider options such as taking a health leave or training part-time as part of your recovery. Quick reference index Highlighted here are some of the most common terms used to discuss issues of physician health and the pages where these terms are discussed throughout the text. Moffitt Duke University Duke University, Duke University Medical Center, and King s College London Daniel W. Hancox and Richie Poulton Duke University Medical Center University of Otago Brent Roberts W. Murray Thomson University of Illinois at Urbana Champaign University of Otago Avshalom Caspi Duke University, Duke University Medical Center, and King s College London The rising number of newly insured young adults brought on by health care reform will soon increase demands on primary care physicians. Physicians will face more young adult patients, which presents an opportunity for more prevention-oriented care. In the present study, we evaluated whether brief observer reports of young adults personality traits could predict which individuals would be at greater risk for poor health as they entered midlife. Moreover, personality ratings from peer informants who knew participants well, and from a nurse and receptionist who had just met participants for the first time, predicted health decline from young adulthood to midlife despite striking differences in level of acquaintance. Personality effect sizes were on par with other well-established health risk factors such as socioeconomic status, smoking, and self-reported health. We discuss the potential utility of personality measurement to function as an inexpensive and accessible tool for health care professionals to personalize preventive medicine. Adding personality information to existing health care electronic infrastructures could also advance personality theory by generating opportunities to examine how personality processes influence doctor patient communication, health service use, and patient outcomes. This research Moffitt, Department of Psychology and Neuroscience, Institute for Ge- received support from U. The study protocol was approved by Health and Development Research Unit, University of Otago, Dunedin, the Institutional Ethical Review Boards of the participating universities. Brent Roberts, Department of Psychology, University of Members of the Dunedin Multidisciplinary Health and Development Study Illinois at Urbana Champaign. We thank the Study members as well as their informants, unit Department of Psychology and Neurosciece, Institute for Genome Sciences research staff, and founder Phil Silva. The resulting proliferation of assessment tools and lates across the life course (Weintraub et al.

Graft ( 78) reported a successful pregnancy in a gravida treated with maintenance dosages of wasp and mixed vespid venoms forzest 20mg. Subsequently the Committee on Insects of the American Academy of Allergy and Immunology reported 63 pregnancies in 26 gravidas with no definite systemic reactions ( 79) 20mg forzest. Five of 43 gestations resulted in spontaneous abortions 20 mg forzest, thought to be unrelated to stings or immunotherapy forzest 20 mg. Other issues should be discussed with the gravida , such as avoidance measures and personal use of epinephrine . Uncontrollable life-threatening status asthmaticus: an indication for termination of pregnant by caesarean section . Perinatal outcomes in the pregnancies of asthmatic women: a prospective controlled analysis . Fetal oxygenation , assessment of fetal well-being , and obstetric management of the pregnant patient with asthma. Effect of pregnancy on airway responsiveness and asthma severity: relationship to serum progesterone. The course of asthma during pregnancy, postpartum, and with successive pregnancies: a prospective analysis. Effects of in utero and environmental tobacco smoke exposure on lung function in boys and girls with and without asthma. Position paper of the Working Group on Immunotherapy of the European Academy of Allergy and Clinical Immunology. Drug Evaluation Annual 1994, Department of Drugs, Division of Drugs and Toxicology, 6th ed. The human respiratory nasal mucosa in pregnancy: an electron microscopic and histochemical study. Pregnancy outcome after gestational exposure to terfenadine: a multicenter, prospective controlled study. Hereditary angioneurotic oedema and pregnancy: case reports and review of the literature. Treatment of 193 episodes of laryngeal edema with C I inhibitor concentrate in patients with hereditary angioedema. Severe complication to phytomenadione after intramuscular injection in woman in labor. Renal impairment, hypertension and encephalomacia in an infant surviving severe intrauterine anoxia. These patients often reside in inner cities with low income, inadequate knowledge of asthma and its management, and no predetermined crisis plan ( 1). Physicians and nurses must address this problem, even in the acute care setting, to diminish the risk of repeated exacerbation. Instruction takes time and may not be feasible for all patients; still, reallocation of resources to allow for education in the acute setting may be cost-effective in the long run. Follow-up appointments with an asthma specialist also are recommended to reduce further the risk of subsequent hospitalization ( 6). This chapter reviews the more immediate concern of restoring the state of unlabored breathing. Proven in this regard are b-agonist bronchodilators and systemic corticosteroids, with accumulating evidence supporting the use of anticholinergic bronchodilators. For patients requiring intubation and mechanical ventilation, a strategy that avoids excessive lung inflation, mainly through prolongation of exhalation time, decreases morbidity and mortality (7). Insofar as it provides rationale for patient assessment, drug management, and ventilator strategy, the pathophysiology of acute asthma will be reviewed. Finally, there will be an overview of the specifics of drug management and recommendations for ventilator management. In sudden asphyxic asthma, severe airflow obstruction develops in less than 3 hours. This type of asthma represents a relatively pure form of smooth muscle mediated bronchospasm, with the potential for rapid improvement after bronchodilator therapy ( 9,10). There are more submucosal neutrophils and fewer airway secretions in sudden asphyxic asthma compared with attacks of slower progression ( 11,12). Respiratory track infection is not a significant trigger; commonly, no identifiable cause is found ( 16). Attacks of slower onset are triggered by a variety of infectious, allergic, and nonspecific irritant exposures. They are characterized by progressive airway wall inflammation, accumulations of thick intraluminal mucus, and bronchospasm. Mucus plugs obstruct large and small airways and can be a striking finding at postmortem (17). They consist of sloughed epithelial cells, eosinophils, fibrin, and other serum components that have leaked through the denuded airway epithelium. Importantly, these attacks represent clear but often missed opportunities to increase antiinflammatory medications in the outpatient setting ( 18). Of course, expiratory time is always shorter than this during spontaneous or assisted breathing. These factors increase expiratory flow so that at a sufficiently large lung volume airflow is adequate to exhale the inspired breath. It is this potential imbalance between strength and load that predisposes to ventilatory failure. It increases in acute asthma, presumably because of hypoperfusion of hyperinflated lung. However, Ve increases more than Vd/Vt in mild acute asthma, causing acute respiratory alkalosis. Airway obstruction also decreases ventilation (V) relative to perfusion (Q), resulting in hypoxemia ( 21). Because this is not shunt (a V/Q of zero), supplementation of inspired oxygen readily corrects hypoxemia. However, no cut-off value exists for either measurement that accurately predicts hypoxemia. Hypoxemia, which results from peripheral airway obstruction, may occur sooner and/or resolve later than airflow rates that mainly reflect large airway function ( 24,25). Large swings in pleural pressure caused by breathing against obstructed airways are responsible for the circulatory changes in acute asthma. Blood return to the right heart decreases during expiration because of positive intrathoracic pressure, but during vigorous inspiration, intrathoracic pressure decreases and blood flow increases. This fills the right ventricle early in inspiration, shifting the intraventricular septum leftward. Lung hyperinflation increases pulmonary vascular resistance and results in transient pulmonary hypertension ( 30,31). Multifactorial analysis is necessary because no single clinical measurement has been found to predict outcome reliably ( 32). Risk factors for fatal or near-fatal severe asthma Prior intubation is the greatest single predictor of subsequent asthma death ( 39). Deterioration despite optimal treatment, including the concurrent use of oral steroids, identifies high-risk patients who are unlikely to improve quickly. Differential Diagnosis All that wheezes is not asthma is a fitting clinical saw worth considering during the initial evaluation. In most cases, the history and physical examination will identify conditions that are mistaken for asthma. An extensive smoking history suggests chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and a more fixed form of expiratory airflow obstruction that may be associated with pulmonary hypertension and chronic respiratory acidosis. Congestive heart failure rarely causes airway hyperreactivity and wheeze, so-called cardiac asthma (40). The presence of an enlarged cardiac silhouette, vascular redistribution or a pulmonary edema pattern, and a left-sided third heart sound are clues to this diagnosis. Occasionally, distinguishing between congestive heart failure and asthma can be difficult because airflow obstruction rarely causes pulmonary edema through mechanisms specified above, and bronchodilators partially reverse cardiac asthma ( 41). Myocardial ischemia should be considered in older patients with risk factors for coronary artery disease. Foreign body should be considered in very young and old patients, patients with altered mental status or neuromuscular disease, and when symptoms develop after eating or dental work. Localized wheeze and, rarely, asymmetric hyperinflation on chest radiography are clues to foreign body aspiration. Upper airway obstruction from granulation tissue, tumor, laryngeal edema, or vocal cord dysfunction may mimic asthma. In contrast to asthma, upper airway (extrathoracic) obstruction flattens the inspiratory portion of the flow-volume loop, leaving the expiratory loop intact. When this condition is suspected, fiberoptic laryngoscopy is indicated to confirm paradoxical vocal cord movement. Significant response to helium-oxygen mixtures (heliox) suggests upper airway obstruction, although heliox response may occur in asthma and should not be used to distinguish upper from lower airway obstruction. Additional features suggesting upper airway obstruction include stridor, normal oxygenation, and resolution of airflow obstruction after intubation (43). Antibiotics are frequently prescribed for asthmatics with increased sputum production. However, sputum that looks purulent in asthma contains eosinophils, not polymorphonuclear leukocytes, and antibiotics are of no benefit in this setting ( 44). Antibiotics should be reserved for treatment of concurrent sinusitis, or when mycoplasmal or chlamydial infections are suspected. Noninvasive lower extremity Doppler ultrasonographic examinations are helpful when they indicate thrombus; however, results of lower extremity Doppler studies are negative in 30% to 40% of patients with acute pulmonary embolism. Serial lower extremity Doppler studies provide an added sense of security, but the utility of this approach has not been validated in this setting. Ventilation-perfusion scans are difficult to interpret if there is airflow obstruction, but still may be diagnostic. Examination of the head and neck should focus on identifying barotrauma and upper airway obstruction. Prolongation of inspiration, stridor, and suprasternal retractions suggest upper airway obstruction. Tracheal deviation, asymmetric breath sounds, mediastinal crunch, and subcutaneous emphysema suggest pneumomediastinum or pneumothorax. Rarely, tracheal deviation is caused by atelectasis from mucus plugging, foreign body aspiration, or endobronchial tumor. The mouth and neck should be inspected for mass lesions or signs of previous surgery such as tracheostomy or thyroidectomy. However, wheeze is not a reliable indicator of the severity of airflow obstruction ( 48). A silent chest indicates severe obstruction, with insufficient flow for wheezes to occur. Heart rate generally decreases in improving patients (although some improving patients remain tachycardic because of chronotropic effects of medications). Supraventricular and ventricular arrhythmias occur, particularly in the elderly ( 50). The finding of a third heart sound, jugular venous distention, or pedal edema suggests primary heart disease. Jugular venous distention is a manifestation of dynamic hyperinflation, forceful exhalation, and tension pneumothorax. In severely dyspneic patients, peak flow determination is generously deferred because it rarely alters initial management and may worsen bronchospasm ( 53), even to the point of respiratory arrest ( 54). Several studies have demonstrated that failure of initial therapy to improve expiratory flow after 30 minutes predicts a more severe course and need for hospitalization ( 55,56,57 and 58). The presence of hypercapnia denotes severe disease; however, it alone is not an indication for intubation. Conversely, the absence of hypercapnia does not rule out impending respiratory arrest ( 61). Patients who waste serum bicarbonate in response to persistent respiratory alkalosis develop a metabolic acidosis with a normal anion gap. Lactic acidosis is more common in men, severely obstructed patients (62,63), and patients receiving parenteral b agonists ( 64). In mechanically ventilated patients, serial blood gases help guide ventilator management. Chest Radiography Chest radiographs influence treatment in 1% to 5% of cases ( 65,66 and 67). In one study (68) that reported radiographic abnormalities in 34% of cases, the majority of findings were classified as focal parenchymal opacities or increased interstitial markings, common indicators of atelectasis in asthma. The available data suggest that radiography is indicated only when there are localizing signs or symptoms, concerns regarding barotrauma or pneumonia, or when it is not clear that asthma is the correct diagnosis. In mechanically ventilated patients, chest radiography confirms proper endotracheal tube position. Observation for at least 60 minutes after the last dose of b-agonist helps ensure stability prior to discharge. Before discharge, patients should receive written medication instructions as well as a written plan of action to be followed in the event of deterioration. Mild cases with a complete response to bronchodilators may be considered for inhaled steroids alone. Most patients do well with oral steroids, particularly if they had not been optimally treated prior to the emergency room visit (69). An 8-day course of 40 mg/day prednisone is as efficacious and safe as an 8-day tapering schedule ( 70). Alternatively, a single dose of triamcinolone diacetate 40 mg intramuscularly also has been reported to be as effective as prednisone 40 mg/day for 5 days after treatment in the emergency room for asthma ( 71). Patients in this group require ongoing treatment either in the emergency room or general medical ward.

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Journal article with indication that additional text follows it discussion Hoffmann J 20 mg forzest, Lenhard A 20mg forzest. Economic evaluation of nurse led intermediate care versus standard care for post-acute medical patients: cost minimisation analysis of data from a randomised controlled trial forzest 20mg. Journal article with an indication it may be found in PubMed Amalberti R forzest 20 mg, Auroy Y , Berwick D , Barach P . Community-based interventions for improving perinatal and neonatal health outcomes in developing countries: a review of the evidence . Supported by a Public Health Service grant from the National Institute of Mental Health . Sample Citation and Introduction to Citing Parts of Journal Articles The general format for a reference to a part of a journal article , including punctuation: Examples of Citations to Parts of Journal Articles Rather than citing an entire journal article, a part of an article such as a table may be cited. In general, most modern articles have standardized to three types of parts: figures, tables, and appendixes. Because a reference should start with the individual or organization responsible for the journal article start with the article information, then follow it with the information about the part. Journal articles frequently contain charts, figures, and other illustrative material that has been reproduced with permission from other sources. Continue to Citation Rules with Examples for Parts of Journal Articles Continue to Examples of Citations to Parts of Journal Articles Citation Rules with Examples for Parts of Journal Articles Components/elements are listed in the order they should appear in a reference. In this case, give whatever name has been used for the illustration and follow it with a comma and the title. Experiences of older women with cancer receiving hospice care: significance for physical therapy. Parts of journal articles not in English with original or romanized language included 17. Evolucion de la mortalidad infantil de La Rioja (1980-1998) [Evolution of the infant mortality rate in la Rioja in Spain Journals 65 (1980-1998)]. Appendix, [Excerpts from "Prescription Pain Medications: Frequently Asked Questions and Answers for Health Care Professionals"]; p. Parts of journals in two equal languages Location (Pagination) of Part for Parts of Journal Articles (required) General Rules for Location (Pagination) Begin location with "p. S10-8 End page information with a period Specific Rules for Location (Pagination) Roman numerals used as page numbers No page numbers appear on the pages of the part Box 69 Roman numerals used as page numbers Unlike the practice with volume and issue numbers, keep roman numerals when they are used as page numbers Give them in upper or lower case, whichever appears in the publication Appendix 2, Common aquatic invertebrates; p. Parts of journals in two equal languages Examples of Citations to Parts of Journal Articles 1. Cyclooxygenase inhibitors suppress aromatase expression and activity in breast cancer cells. Long-term radiographic and functional outcome of extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy induced perirenal hematomas. Evaluation and management of patients with uncontrolled systolic hypertension: is another new paradigm really needed? Unnumbered/unlettered and untitled figure in a journal article Roth S, Semjonow A, Waldner M, Hertle L. Risk of bowel dysfunction with diarrhea after continent urinary diversion with ileal and ileocecal segments. Predictive value of a cross-cultural asthma case-detection tool in an elementary school population. Appendix A, International study of asthma and allergy in childhood questionnaire; p. Longitudinal change in height of men and women: implications for interpretation of the body mass index: the Baltimore Longitudinal Study of Aging. Appendix, Equations, obtained from cross-sectional analysis, relating height to age; p. Synthesis of (-)-longithorone A: using organic synthesis to probe a proposed biosynthesis. Expression of caveolin-1 and caveolin-2 in urothelial carcinoma of the urinary bladder correlates with tumor grade and squamous differentiation. Image 4, Immunohistochemical staining of a urothelial carcinoma with squamous differentiation with anti- caveolin-1; p. Evolucion de la mortalidad infantil de La Rioja (1980-1998) [Evolution of the infant mortality rate in la Rioja in Spain (1980-1998)]. Raccomandazioni per il trasporto inter ed intra ospedaliero del paziente critico = Recommendations on the transport of critically ill patients. Sample Citation and Introduction to Citing Entire Journal Titles The general format for a reference to an entire journal title, including punctuation: - for a title continuing to be published: - for a title that ceased publication: Journals 71 Examples of Citations to Entire Journal Titles If a journal is still being published, as shown in the first example, follow volume and date information with a hyphen and three spaces. If a journal has ceased publication, as in example two, separate beginning and ending volume and date information with a hyphen surrounded by a space. When citing a journal, always provide information on the latest title and publisher unless you are citing an earlier version. If you wish to cite all volumes for a journal that has changed title, provide a separate citation for each title. Many journal titles with both print and Internet versions do not carry the same exact content. 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Journal title with government agency or national or international organization as publisher 17. Journal title with unknown place of publication and publisher Volume Number for Entire Journal Titles (required) General Rules for Volume Number Precede the number with "Vol. Journal title published in more than one series Issue Number for Entire Journal Titles (required) General Rules for Issue Number Precede the issue number with "No. Box 89 No issue number can be found If no issue number is present but a volume number can be found, follow the publisher with the volume number and beginning date Annual Review of Nursing Research. Journal title without volume or issue number Journals 85 Date of Publication for Entire Journal Titles (required) General Rules for Date of Publication Include the month and year the journal began to be published, in that order, such as May 2004 Convert roman numerals to arabic numbers. 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Standard journal title that has ceased publication Clinics in Endocrinology and Metabolism. Journal title not in English, with optional translation Archives des Maladies du Coeur et des Vaisseaux [Archives of Diseases of the Heart and Vessels]. Journal title published in two equal languages Canadian Family Physician = Medecin de Famille Canadien. Journal title with editor included Folia Primatologica: International Journal of Primatology. Journal title with well-known place of publication Advances in Health Sciences Education: Theory and Practice. Journal title with lesser-known place of publication Biological Research for Nursing. Journal title with unknown place of publication Acta Radiologica: Therapy, Physics, Biology. Journal title with unknown place of publication and publisher Al-Azhar Medical Journal. Journal title published in more than one series The American Journal of the Medical Sciences. Journal title with days of the month included in date British Medical Journal (Clinical Research Edition). Journal title with multiple years in beginning or ending dates of publication Nursing Forum. The Journal of the Australasian College of Nutritional and Environmental Medicine. Continues: Journal of the Australian College of Nutritional and Environmental Medicine. Journals 95 The Journal of Immunology: Official Journal of the American Association of Immunologists. Continued by: Oral Surgery, Oral Medicine, Oral Pathology, Oral Radiology and Endodontology. Journal title both previously published and continuing to be published under another name Nursing & Health Care: Official Publication of the National League for Nursing. Journal title with frequency of publication note Nursing History Review: Official Journal of the American Association for the History of Nursing. Journal title with note on a library where it may be located European Journal of Cardio-thoracic Surgery: Official Journal of the European Association for Cardio-thoracic Surgery. Entire Books Sample Citation and Introduction Citation Rules with Examples Examples B. Individual Volumes of Books (1) Individual Volumes With a Separate Title but Without Separate Authors/Editors Sample Citation and Introduction Citation Rules with Examples Examples (2) Individual Volumes With a Separate Title and Separate Authors/Editors Sample Citation and Introduction Citation Rules with Examples Examples C. Parts of Books Sample Citation and Introduction Citation Rules with Examples Examples D. Sample Citation and Introduction to Citing Entire Books The general format for a reference to a book, including punctuation: 98 Citing Medicine Examples of Citations to Entire Books A book is a publication that is complete in one volume or a limited number of volumes; books are therefore often called monographs. Because technical reports and other specific types of monographs have additional special features, they are treated in their own chapters. References to books in print or in microform (microfilm, microfiche) are included in this chapter. The back of the title page, called the verso or copyright page, and the cover of the book are additional sources of authoritative information not found on the title page. Note that the rules for creating references to books are not the same as the rules for cataloging books. Citation Rules with Examples for Entire Books Components/elements are listed in the order they should appear in a reference. Author/Editor (R) | Author Affiliation (O) | Title (R) | Content Type (O) | Type of Medium (R) | Edition (R) | Editor and other Secondary Authors (O) | Place of Publication (R) | Publisher (R) | Date of Publication (R) | Pagination (O) | Physical Description (O) | Series (O) | Language (R) | Notes (O) Author/Editor for Entire Books (required) General Rules for Author/Editor List names in the order they appear in the text Enter surname (family or last name) first for each author/editor Books 99 Capitalize surnames and enter spaces within surnames as they appear in the document cited on the assumption that the author approved the form used. Books 103 American College of Surgeons, Committee on Trauma, Ad Hoc Subcommittee on Outcomes, Working Group. Follow the same rules as used for author names, but end the list of names with a comma and the specific role, that is, editor or translator. Separate the surname from the given name or initials by a comma; follow initials with a period; separate successive names by a semicolon and a space. Book with organization as author and subsidiary department/division named Books 105 13. Box 14 Names for cities and countries not in English Use the English form for names of cities and countries if possible. Moskva becomes Moscow Wien becomes Vienna Italia becomes Italy Espana becomes Spain Examples for Author Affiliation 18. Diagnostika i kompleksnoe lechenie osnovnykh gastroenterologicheskikh zabolevanii: klinicheskie ocherki. Base molecular de la expresion del mensaje genetico [Molecular basis of gene expression]. Diagnostika i kompleksnoe lechenie osnovnykh gastroenterologicheskikh zabolevanii: klinicheskie ocherki [Diagnosis and complex treatment of basic gastrointestinal diseases: clinical studies].

9 of 10 - Review by T. Dennis
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