By V. Trompok. Williams Baptist College.
Both ofen behave as epileptic encephalopathies concluding remarks and are considered later in this chapter 50mg viagra professional. Te long-term outcome viagra professional 50 mg, including scholastic abil- ities 50 mg viagra professional, was found to be no diferent in a cohort of 289 children with Findings from double-blind randomized controlled trials febrile seizures randomized to either intermittent prophylaxis dur- Te evidence base from double-blind randomized controlled trials ing fever with diazepam or no prophylaxis  100mg viagra professional. However viagra professional 50mg, serious methodo- Tere was no signifcant diferences with regard discontinuation logical problems were identifed in all studies 100 mg viagra professional, and a meta-analysis because of adverse events but attentional dysfunction was signif- was not considered appropriate viagra professional 100 mg. Te Cochrane review concluded icantly more common with valproic acid than with ethosuximide that these studies did not reliably inform clinical practice  viagra professional 100mg. Tese fndings persisted at 12 Tere are no Cochrane reviews to guide management of the other months . Seventeen Sodium valproate has been assessed both in open non-compar- patients remained seizure-free at a year during an open phase ex- ative studies and in single-blind , placebo-controlled trials in both tension on levetiracetam. Tere was a good response to both drugs in the treat- was superior to both lamotrigine and topiramate in terms of time to ment-naive patients but no overall evidence of the superiority of ei- treatment failure and to lamotrigine but not topiramate in terms of ther drug in treatment-naive patients or in refractory patients. Te long-term efcacy and tolerability of etho- with ethosuximide (92%) than with clonazepam (69. Respond- Although seizure-free rate at 3 months was signifcantly better with ers were then randomized in a double-blind manner to treatment ethosuximide early on, this advantage was lost by 9 months. In the open-label phase 71% of reports of the use of acetazolamide suggested efcacy both as mono- patients became seizure-free. One child became seizure-free, two improved Tere are numerous open studies, case series and case reports of the at low dose and two showed no improvement. A number of open, add-on, non-compara- A number of open studies of levetiracetam add to the evidence tive studies were reported . However, this syndrome and, more recently, evidence from case series has demonstrated ag- ofen proves very resistant to drug treatment. Indeed, earlier withdrawal may sometimes choice in those cases in which cost considerations are paramount. If relapse occurs, treatment can be restarted and a further attempt at withdrawal made afer a suitable interval. Te features Tere is a reasonable evidence base that sodium valproate, lam- of these syndromes are shown in Table 14. However, lamotrigine childhood, these are not well characterized and are not be consid- is not a good antimyoclonic agent and will exacerbate myoclonic ered further here. Levetiracetam, like sodium valproate, ment of another epilepsy syndrome or termination by parent or pa- is active against photosensitive seizures. Efects on quality of life and lems or aggravation of seizures and/or induction of new seizure on cognition and language were not studied. Tese have included details of how chil- ic seizure, three partial seizures, status epilepticus or worsening of dren with the syndrome were managed. Withdrawals for adverse (112 patients), with smaller numbers receiving sodium valproate, efects were 3. In all patients seizures remitted seizure during an observation period of 6 months) occurred in four within 1–6 years of onset. Five patients dropped out because of adverse ef- ries to date was of 33 patients with the syndrome, including fve who fects (mainly behavioural) on levetiracetam and one on sulthiame were photosensitive on electroencephalography (four of whom had (23. About 80% of the patients were reported to be seizure-free aimed to demonstrate non-inferiority but was under-powered as a (on or of medication) within 2–7 years of seizure onset. Eleven were seizure-free at 6 months Findings from other studies and all were seizure-free by 12 months, with 10 showing a complete Peters et al. Patients were not randomized but epilepsies treated with levetiracetam found evidence of beneft in physician advice was a major determinant of treatment choice. Tose studied included ‘atypical rolandic epilep- secondarily generalized seizures but not focal seizures. All patients sies’ such as Landau–Klefner syndrome and continuous spikes and eventually became seizure-free 4–14 years afer diagnosis and there waves during sleep. Surprisingly, the drug appeared ‘more helpful’ was no evidence of improvement in educational achievement, in these patients than in the more typical cases . Tese have suggested that topiramate, levetiracetam and oxcarbazepine may be Recommendations from expert committees efcacious [77,78,79,80]. It follows that efective icant role in determining which children receive regular treatment. Diferential dosing determined by the circadian rhythm of seizures However, proof that this is so is lacking. However, a pilot study in six children with but has its peak age of onset in infancy and is not considered here. In contrast, sulthiame (used in higher doses than many more usually, the diagnosis becomes apparent afer a period during experienced clinicians advocate) has been reported to cause dete- which clinicians considered they were dealing with a more straight- rioration in cognitive function . Consequently, most children will already be on result in cardiorespiratory arrest [99,100]. However, this is particularly the case in the epileptic en- al afer a suitable seizure-free interval (usually 2 years) is appropri- cephalopathies. Some children will relapse and a further course of treatment not the most important aspect. Steroid and immunoglobulins may also may respond to surgical treatment should be considered . Resective surgery is very rarely an op- tion but functional neurosurgery, principally callosotomy and mul- Treatment of epileptic encephalopathies tiple subpial transection, can be useful. Te epileptic encephalopathies Seizure remission occurs in a few patients with epileptic encepha- must be distinguished from neurodegenerative disorders. Management of Childhood Epilepsy Syndromes 187 Lennox–Gastaut syndrome showed superior efcacy to placebo as summarized in Table 14. In suggested that the efcacy shown in the blinded studies was main- North America a broader defnition is ofen used than in Europe. Te populations studied included chil- 1,5-benzodiazepines (such as clonazepam) are efcacious, particu- dren and adults, used broad defnitions of the syndrome and had larly for myoclonic seizures, although tonic status may be precipitat- maintenance phases of, at most, only a few months. Clobazam (a 1,5-benzodiazepine) was evaluated was not shown to be superior to placebo . Twenty-fve – felbamate, lamotrigine, topiramate, rufnamide and clobazam – experienced a >50% reduction in seizures . Drug Population Intervention Key outcomes Felbamate 73 subjects aged 4–36 years Felbamate versus placebo Mean change in total seizure frequency: 19% decrease versus having at least 180 atonic (maximum of 45 mg/ 4% increasea or atypical absences in 8 kg/day or 3600 mg/day, Responder rate for total seizures: 50% versus 11%a weeks prior to baseline whichever lower) for Mean change in atonic seizure frequency: 34% decrease versus 70 days 9% decreasea Responder rate for atonic seizures: 57% versus 9%a Discontinuations due to adverse events: 1 versus 1 Lamotrigine 169 subjects aged 3–25 Lamotrigine versus placebo Median change in major seizure frequency: 32% decrease years with at least one (dose dependent on versus 9% decreasea seizure every 2 days concomitant valproate Responder rate for major seizures: 33% versus 16%a therapy and body Median change in drop attack frequency: 34% decrease versus weight) for 16 weeks 9% decreasea Responder rate for drop attacks: 37% versus 22%a Discontinuations due to adverse events: 3 versus 7 Topiramate 98 subjects aged 1–30 years Topiramate versus placebo Median change in major seizure frequency: 26% decrease with at least 60 seizures in (target dose approx versus 5% decreasea month prior to baseline 6 mg/kg/day) for 11 Responder rate for major seizures: 33% versus 8%a weeks Median change in drop attack frequency: 15% decrease versus 5% decreasea Responder rate for drop attacks: 28% versus 14% Discontinuations due to adverse events: none Rufnamide 138 subjects aged 4–37 Rufnamide versus placebo Median change in total seizure frequency: 33% decrease versus years with at least 90 (target dose 45 mg/kg/ 12% decreasea seizures (including drop day) for 84 days Median change in tonic–atonic seizure frequency: 43% attacks and atypical decrease versus 1% increasea absences) in month prior Responder rate for tonic–atonic seizures: 43% versus 17%a to baseline Discontinuations due to adverse events: 6 versus 0 Clobazam 217 subjects aged 2–60 Clobazam versus placebo Reduction in drop attacks: 12. Other studies have shown that, although the initial efect are no data from randomized, double-blind, controlled trials and is ofen good, relapse is common. Although regular benzodiaze- than 10 days, although 10 subsequently relapsed within 6 months pines may be helpful, their usefulness for treatment of episodes of . However, there is evidence that clobazam may be supe- view  found no evidence to support the use of steroids in the rior to other options . Carbamazepine, phenytoin, oxcarbaze- treatment of childhood epilepsy, other than West syndrome. However, a subsequent single-blind placebo study lacosamide might do likewise . Patients were randomized to receive appears to achieve nothing and, in a few cases, it is appropriate to the diet immediately or afer 3 months. Tirty-eight per cent on the diet had a >50% reduction Doose syndrome in seizures compared with 6% not on the diet. Numbers were too Tere are no randomized controlled studies of any treatment for small to analyse by syndrome but there was no signifcant diference Doose syndrome and the best evidence available is from case series. Corpus callosotomy can be used for the treatment of atonic lamotrigine, sometimes combined with sodium valproate, is ofen and tonic drop attacks, seizure types that characteristically occur in used. A study from Taiwan reported that 68% of patients (children became seizure-free on lamotrigine and there are no reports of lam- and adults) had at least a 50% reduction in seizures following ante- otrigine exacerbating seizures in Doose syndrome . Indeed, it rior callosotomy and that this was not dependent on whether West was found to be efective in 6 out of 10 patients who were hitherto Management of Childhood Epilepsy Syndromes 189 pharmacoresistent . Because this is an area of eloquent cortex, 3 months and in six out of eight patients at 6 months. However, the technique of mul- particularly efective against myoclonic–astatic seizures . However, even in those children who re- syndrome, 11 of whom were treated with the ketogenic diet. At 18 spond quickly, age-appropriate language appears to be only occa- months, six remained on the diet, two were seizure-free, two had sionally achieved. Reports suggest that earlier surgery is associated a 75–99% reduction in seizures and two experienced a 50–74% with a better functional impact. Treatment of this rare syndrome is guided by information from case Treatment with no other drug (including levetiracetam, carbamaz- series. Tere is one report of myoclonic status epilepticus in Doose zure control is said to be associated with a better long-term cognitive syndrome apparently provoked by levetiracetam . Both are rare and there References are no randomized controlled trials to help guide their manage- 1. Tis and other drugs, such as oxcarbazepine, vigabatrin, ti- tiepileptic drugs, I: treatment of new onset epilepsy: report of the Treatment and agabine and gabapentin, are probably best avoided. It is sometimes Technology Assessment Subcommittee and the Quality Standards Subcommittee of the American Academy of Neurology and the American Epilepsy Society. Efcacy and tolerability of the new an- or two of them before trying other treatment modalities. Te diagnosis and management of the ethosuximide, benzodiazepines (administered rectally) and sulth- epilepsies in adults and children in primary and secondary care. Treatment of pediatric It is usually advocated that they should be tried early on the clinical epilepsy: European expert opinion, 2007. Epilepsy and evidence-based medicine: a vote of conf- dence in expert opinion from the National Institute for Clinical Excellence? Stiripentol in severe myoclonic epilepsy Success is also claimed for the use of intravenous immunoglobulins in infancy: a randomised placebo-controlled syndrome-dedicated trial. Human herpesvirus 6 and 7 in febrile withdrawal of such treatment can usually be achieved. Intermittent oral diazepam prophylaxis in an unblinded randomised controlled trial. J Pediatr trolled trial of ibuprofen syrup administered during febrile illnesses to prevent 1961; 58: 211–218. Clobazam in treatment of refractory the recurrence of febrile seizures in children? A systematic review of randomized epilepsy: the Canadian experience – a retrospective study. Lamotrigine as frst-line drug in child- on Febrile Seizures American Academy of Pediatrics. Febrile seizures: clinical hood absence epilepsy: a clinical and neurophysiological study. Brain Dev 2004; practice guideline for the long-term management of the child with simple febrile 26: 26–29. Lack of efcacy of phenytoin in children pre- frst-line monotherapy in newly diagnosed typical absence seizures: an open-label, senting with febrile status epilepticus. Lamotrigine for patients with juvenile intravenous diazepam for treating febrile seizures in children: prospective ran- myoclonic epilepsy following prior treatment with valproate: results of an open-la- domised study. Exacerbation of juvenile myoclonic epilepsy with lam- trigine for absence seizures in children and adolescents. Ethosuximide, valproic acid, and lamotrig- lamotrigine in juvenile myoclonic epilepsy in adults: a prospective, unblinded ran- ine in childhood absence epilepsy. Topiramate monotherapy for childhood absence seizures: an open label ine in childhood absence epilepsy: initial monotherapy outcome at 12 months. Benefcial efect of antiepileptic medication pathic generalized epilepsy with myoclonic seizures. Te efects on cognitive function and behavioural topiramate in Lennox–Gastaut syndrome. Neurolo- problems of topiramate compared with carbamazepine as monotherapy for chil- gy 1999; 52: 1882–1887. Felbamate in the treatment of Lennox–Gastaut syndrome: results benign childhood epilepsy with centrotemporal spikes: a clinical and cognitive of a 12-month open-label study following a randomized clinical trial. Topiramate in Lennox–Gastaut racetam monotherapy to improve language dysfunction associated with benign syndrome: open-label treatment of patients completing a randomized controlled rolandic epilepsy. Anticonvulsant-induced status epilepticus in Len- opoulos syndrome: a case report. Clobazam for the treatment of intractable childhood epilep- by carbamazepine in Panayiotopoulos syndrome. Rolandic epilepsy has little efect on adult life 30 years ment of epilepsy in children. Treatment of benign focal epilepsies in children: when and how should 1997; 38: 68–73. Ictal cardiorespiratory arrest in Panayiot- single-blind trial in children with Lennox–Gastaut syndrome. First long-term experience with the or- Treatment of refractory epilepsy with intravenous immunoglobulins: results of phan drug rufnamide in children with myoclonic-astatic epilepsy (Doose syn- the frst double-blind/dose fnding clinical study. Te ketogenic diet for the treatment of myoclonic-astatic epilepsy of early childhood. A comparison of seizure outcome afer cal- status epilepticus in myoclonic-astatic epilepsy: a case report. Epileptic Disord losotomy in patients with Lennox–Gastaut syndrome and a positive or negative 2006; 8: 213–218. Sulthiame therapy for continuous spike and development subcommittee of the American Academy of Neurology.
Its use can increase dead space and resistance 100 mg viagra professional, which may be overcome by increasing pressure support viagra professional 50mg. It can be used safely up to a week32 100mg viagra professional, 34 or until visible liquid contamination occurs viagra professional 50 mg. This gets converted to cost saving on disposables 50mg viagra professional, fewer need for breaking the circuit and hence reduction in bacterial contamination viagra professional 100 mg. Aerosol Therapy Aerosol is a group of particles suspended in air for a relatively long time viagra professional 100mg. Aerosol therapy is used in order to deliver the drug directly to the site of action 50 mg viagra professional, there by minimizing the systemic side effects and improving the efficacy . Aerosol gets deposited through the process of impaction , sedimentation and diffusion. Particles around 2 μm get sedimented due to gravity and still smaller particles undergo diffusion. The latter however has a greater versatility and can be adapted to deliver various drugs. An array of drugs like bronchodilators, steroids, antibiotics, anticholinergics, mucolytics, prostacyclin, etc. The amount of the drug deposited in the lower airway will depend on several factors such as physiochemical properties of the drug,33, 35, 36 the nature of the device, position of the device in the circuit, the nature of the ventilator circuit, ventilatory parameters, humidity and density of the inspired air and on the airway anatomy. The larger size particle can get impacted in the endotracheal tube and in the ventilator circuit. Continuous operation requires the nebulizer to be driven by a pressurized gas source. Intermittent operation requires a separate line from the ventilator to drive the nebulizer during inspiration. Between the two, intermittent operation during inspiration is preferred as it lowers the wastage of drug. Ventilatory parameters: Adequate aerosol delivery is achieved in assisted modes of ventilation only if the patient is in synchrony with the ventilator. Longer inspiratory time has to be used in order to increase the nebulizer generated aerosol to be inhaled with each breath. Circuit characteristics: In general, smaller endotracheal tube, narrow internal diameter of the pediatric ventilatory circuit and humidification of gases35, 40 all reduce the aerosol deposition in the lung. Lower density gas such as heliox mixture enable better deposition of the aerosol by decreasing the turbulence of air flow. Position of the device: Aerosol delivery to the patient is improved by placement of a nebulizer at a distance of 30 cm from the endotracheal tube37,40 rather than between the patient wye and the endotracheal tube because the ventilator tubing acts as a spacer for the aerosol to accumulate between breaths. Suggested method for delivery of drug by nebulization (modified from recommendations by Hess:41 1. Ensure 4-6 ml of volume in nebulizer and place the nebulizer in the inspiratory limb 30 cm from wye connection 5. The chamber could be collapsible or noncollapsible and be attached to the inspiratory limb of the ventilator circuit. An aerosol cloud enhancer spacer directs the fumes away from the patient into the spacer. Of all the medicines used, bronchodilators are the ones that are most commonly delivered as an aerosol. In order to reduce air trapping the ventilatory parameters one uses is almost exactly the opposite to the parameters that one has to use for optimization of aerosol delivery. All this makes it difficult, wasteful and even harmful to use continuous aerosol therapy while on ventilator. Mucolytics There are no randomized control trials in the usage of mucolytics in pediatric patients on the ventilator. N-acetylcystine installation has been associated with mucospasm, which can be overcome by using β2 agonist nebulization. Its use has been described in neonates and asthmatics with life threatening mucous plugs. Endotracheal Suctioning Suctioning can be done using the closed or open suctioning system. In closed suction system the suction catheter is encased in a plastic sleeve and is a part of the ventilatory tubing. In order to decrease the viscidity of secretion when not contraindicated, we increase the fluid administration to the patient, i. Hence, gentle suctioning taking care to not push the catheter up to the carina is a must. In patients with pulmonary hypertension and elevated intracranial pressure, sedation prior to suctioning is a must26 as significant elevations of pressures and deterioration of hemodynamic parameters can occur. This predisposes the individual to exposure keratitis, corneal ulceration and infection. Along with passive closure of the eyelid, using lubricants at scheduled intervals has been shown to provide protection from above mentioned problems. We use artificial tears every two hours and if we use an oily lubricant apply it four times a day. We should not let our practices be guided by hear say and should practice evidence based medicine as often as possible. Weaning from Mechanical Ventilation46 Process of weaning begins at the time of initiation of ventilation (i. If such procedure is followed then ventilatory settings would be reduced once the primary pathology/condition that led to ventilation is improving. Decreasing FiO2 requirement Improving breath sounds Decreasing endotracheal secretions Improving chest X-rays Decreased chest tube drainage, bleeding/air bubbles (as the case may be) Improved fluid and electrolyte status (no overload or dyselectrolytemia) Improving hemodynamic status Improving neurological status, muscle power, airway reflexes/control. Described weaning criteria such as maximal negative inspiratory force, vital capacity measurement are usually impractical. Protocol followed at authors institution is as follows: When FiO2 requirement is down to 0. Goal is to decrease what the ventilator does and see if the patient can make up the difference without desaturations/hypercarbia/significant tachypnea and respiratory distress. Extubation can generally be performed when following criteria are met 1 Control of airway reflexes, minimal secretions 2. Disease Specific Ventilation Status asthmaticus47 Main Indications are clinical deterioration despite maximal drug therapy. Initiation of Ventilation Controlled intubation use sedation and muscle relaxation (short acting muscle relaxant such as succinyl choline. Use cuffed endotracheal tube if feasible Ketamine with midazolam are good sedatives for initiation and maintenance of mechanical ventilation Mechanical ventilation in asthma is Associated with high morbidity and mortality Risks involved include barotrauma (air leak) due to dynamic hyperinflation, impaired venous return (tamponade) and low cardiac output due to hyperinflation (pulsus paradoxus). Strategies that minimize end expiratory volume, intrinsic peep, and maximize expiratory time, using lower tidal volumes and respiratory rates with permissive hypercapnia have been shown to be associated with lower mortality. Advantage of pressure control mode is that decelerating flow delivers volume at a lower inspiratory pressure. Strategies of permissive hypercapnea and permissive hypoxemia are generally acceptable to minimize barotrauma and airleak. He is a known case of bronchial asthma on regular Fluticasone inhaler but has stopped his inhalers for the past 10 days. His heart rate is 130/min, respiratory rate is 40/ min with severe intercostal and subcostal retractions with nasal flare. On auscultation, he has bilateral poor air entry and a chest X-ray done of him reveals bilaterally hyperinflated lung fields. He was continued on the same settings allowing for some permissive hypercapnia as discussed earlier. Earlier standard approach used to be: Volume ventilation with tidal volumes 10 to 15 ml/kg with positive end expiratory pressure. Adequate filling pressures with use of fluid and good cardiac contractility with inotropic support to prevent low cardiac output. In another study, use of higher positive end expiratory pressure with lower tidal volumes (Open lung approach)50, 51 has been used with improved results. Prone positioning is being recommended although transient improvement in oxygenation occurs but no real effect on improving long-term outcomes has been shown. Problems associated with prone positioning include difficulty in nursing management and monitoring (chances of accidental extubation, especially during X-ray examination, and physiotherapy). Case Scenario 2 A 5 years old, premorbidly well child weighing 15 kg comes to emergency with 3 days of moderate to high grade fever and cough. Mother noticed that he is breathing fast since morning and has become dusky and unresponsive for the past 10 mins. On examination, he is unresponsive with a heart rate of 140/min, respiratory rate 60/min with retractions and head bobbing. He is peripherally cyanosed, saturating 80% in air and saturations slowly increasing to 88% in 100% oxygen. Airleak Syndrome Pneumothorax, bronchopleural fistula Ventilation for airleak syndrome is challenging. Patient cannot be suctioned frequently as disconnecting the patient from the oscillator can result in volume loss in the lung. Postoperative ventilation following open heart surgery General principles: One needs to understand the cardiac physiology associated with the lesion and corrective surgery as well as cardiopulmonary interactions in the postoperative period. Hypoxia and hypercarbia should be avoided to prevent pulmonary hypertension that increases right ventricular afterload/chances of Right ventricular failure. Volume/pressure limited ventilation : Mode of ventilation has not shown to make any real difference in outcomes. Pulmonary and systemic vascular resistance can increase with pain causing increased after load on the heart. Consider nitric oxide in patients with severe preoperative pulmonary hypertension, in post- operative period. Chronic lung disease/neuromuscular weakness Tracheostomy is usually performed One needs to assess need for day/night/home ventilation Generally low ventilator settings are needed. Case Scenario 3 A 13 years old immunized female child weighing 30 kg was admitted with complaints of sudden onset weakness of lower limbs with inability to stand and bear weight for 2 days. The next day she developed weakness of both upper limbs such that she could only move her arms in the bed. She started to have decreased volume of voice and complained of some tingling sensation in both legs. There was no history of fever, cough, loose stools, trauma, alteration in sensorium or seizures. Conventional Neonatal Ventilation56, 57 Pressure limited time cycled ventilation The commonest type of ventilation used for neonates is pressure limited, time cycled ventilation where a peak inspiratory pressure is set and gas is delivered to achieve that target pressure. After the target is reached, the remainder of the gas volume is released into the atmosphere as a result the tidal volume delivery with each breath is variable despite the recoeded peak pressure being constant. Some ventilators also use airway flow as the basis of cycling in which inspiration ends when flow has reached a critical low or preset level (flow cycled ventilation). Disadvantages Poorly controlled tidal volume Does not respond to changes in respiratory compliance. Spontaneously breathing infants may receive inadequate ventilation and are at increased risk for airleaks. He was tachypneic at birth with a rate of 68/ min and subcostal, intercostal and sternal retractions. He had grunting and had pulse oximeter saturations at 85% in room air which picked to 94% in oxygen. Alternative Modes of Neonatal Ventilation Due to disadvantages associated with conventional ventilation, following alternative strategies are being used increasingly. The basic feature is shifting of control of breathing from clinician to patient and the newer generation of ventilators allow its application to the smallest of babies. Assist/control ventilation- This is the best mode of ventilation in acute phase of illness as it requires least amount of patient effort and produces improved oxygenation at the same or lower mean airway pressure than conventional modes. In this type of ventilation a positive pressure breath is delivered in response to patient’s inspiratory effort (assist) provided it exceeds a preset threshold criteria. The inspiratory flow is proportional to patient effort and ventilation is tolerated well. These are other promosing ventilatory strategies currently under development for clinical use but no data is available relating to its use in neonates. Despite improved ventilatory techniques, conventional ventilation may fail in certain situations. In newborns high frequency oscillation has been found to be effective in certain situations. During this type of ventilation a continuous flow of fresh gas rushes past the source that generates the oscillation and a controlled leak or low pass filter allows the gas to exit the system. Oscillations are generated at a frequency ranging from 3 Hz- 15 Hz (1 hurst (Hz) = 60 breaths) per minute. Pressure oscillations within the airway produce tiny tidal volume fluctuations around a constant distending pressure. The amplitude of the pressure, which varies from 15-50 cm H2O, determines the tidal volume. This ventilation causes uniform recruitment of alveoli and there is significantly lower risk of airleaks. He was breathing at a rate of 80/ min with severe retractions and was saturating 88% in 100% oxygen. He was started on dopamine to increase the systemic pressure and Milrinone for pulmonary vasodilation. He was given a trial of High frequency ventilation on which his hypoxia slowly improved. Remember shock and post-resuscitation are important indications for ventilation, in addition to respiratory failure and neuromuscular disease. Clinical monitoring of adequate chest rise and oxygen saturations is very important (Regardless of volume, pressure or time cycled mode). If ventilator fails, or when in doubt, remove endotracheal tube and try bag-mask ventilation.
It should be remembered that there are many causes of metatarsalgia and the judicious use of multiple imaging modalities will help clarify the diagnosis in difficult cases (Fig 50 mg viagra professional. A: Calcified lesion in the proximal phalanx of the second toe is expanded and extends into the soft tissues viagra professional 100mg. Sesamoid bones of the first metatarsal occur in almost all patients 50mg viagra professional, with sesamoid bones being present in the flexor tendons of the second and fifth metatarsals in a significant number of patients (Figs viagra professional 50 mg. These sesamoid bones serve to decrease friction and pressure of the flexor tendon as it passes in proximity to a joint viagra professional 100 mg. Sesamoiditis most commonly affects the first sesamoid bone of the first metatarsal head 100mg viagra professional, although the sesamoid bones of the second and fifth metatarsal heads also are subject to the development of sesamoiditis viagra professional 50mg. Illustrations of the sesamoid relationships in the axial (A) and plantar planes (B) 100 mg viagra professional. Caused by inflammation of the sesamoid bones , sesamoiditis is characterized by tenderness and pain over the metatarsal heads . The first sesamoid bone of the first metatarsal head is most commonly affected, although the sesamoid bones of the second and fifth metatarsal heads also are subject to the development of sesamoiditis (Fig. The patient suffering from sesamoiditis frequently complains that it feels like he or she is walking with a stone in his or her shoe. The pain of sesamoiditis worsens with prolonged standing or walking for long distances and is exacerbated by improperly fitting or padded shoes. Sesamoiditis is most often associated with pushing-off injuries during football or repetitive microtrauma from running or dancing. Standing posteroanterior views of the feet demonstrating sesamoids at all metatarsophalangeal joints. In contradistinction to metatarsalgia where the tender area of palpation remains over the metatarsal heads, with sesamoiditis, the tender area moves with the flexor tendon when the patient is asked to actively flex his or her toe. The patient with sesamoiditis often exhibits an antalgic gait in an effort to reduce weight bearing during walking. With acute trauma to the sesamoid, ecchymosis over the plantar surface of the foot may be present and on occasion fracture of the sesamoid bone may occur (Figs. Lateral (A) and sesamoid (B) views demonstrating sclerosis and fragmentation of the medial sesamoid (arrow) due to fracture with avascular necrosis. B: Radiograph demonstrating a bipartite medial sesamoid (arrows) with the lateral sesamoid formed from a single ossification center. C: Hallux valgus with rotation of the sesamoids laterally out of the normal metatarsal grooves. Based on the patient’s clinical presentation, additional testing may be indicated, including complete blood cell count, sedimentation rate, and antinuclear antibody testing. B: Sesamoid view shows only a small remnant (arrow) of the lateral sesamoid resulting from avascular necrosis and bone resorption. Axial T1-weighted (A) and T2-weighted (B) images demonstrate marrow edema and a subtle fracture (arrow) in the medial sesamoid. With the patient in the above position, a high-frequency small linear ultrasound transducer is placed in a longitudinal plane over the painful metatarsophalangeal head and an ultrasound survey scan is taken (Fig. Correct longitudinal position for ultrasound transducer for ultrasound evaluation of the sesamoid bones of the feet. The hypoechoic joint space is identified between the head of the metatarsal and the base of the proximal phalanges and the curvilinear sesamoid bone with its acoustic shadow are identified (Fig. When the sesamoid bone is identified, the sesamoid is evaluated for erosion, fragmentation, and fracture (Figs. Government works Printed on acid-free paper International Standard Book Number-13: 978-1-4987-5837-6 (Hardback) 978-1-4987-5841-3 (Paperback) Tis book contains information obtained from authentic and highly regarded sources. Reasonable eﬀorts have been made to publish reliable data and information, but the author and publisher cannot assume responsibility for the validity of all materials or the consequences of their use. Te authors and publishers have attempted to trace the copyright holders of all material reproduced in this publication and apologize to copyright holders if permission to publish in this form has not been obtained. If any copyright material has not been acknowledged please write and let us know so we may rectify in any future reprint. Copyright Law, no part of this book may be reprinted, reproduced, transmitted, or utilized in any form by any electronic, mechanical, or other means, now known or hereafter invented, including photocopying, microﬁlming, and recording, or in any information storage or retrieval system, without written permission from the publishers. For permission to photocopy or use material electronically from this work, please access www. Trademark Notice: Product or corporate names may be trademarks or registered trademarks, and are used only for identiﬁcation and explanation without intent to infringe. Bernstein: I would like to dedicate this book Louis-Philippe Boulet: I would like to dedicate this book to my father, I. Leonard Bernstein, mother, Miriam, and to my wife, Céline, who provided me her most appreciated wife, Lisa, who were always my strongest advocates pro- support throughout my professional life, to my mother fessionally throughout my life. I am also blessed to have Suzanne, and to my wonderful daughters, Véronique and four great children, Alison, Joshua, Rebecca, and Caren, Geneviève, and granddaughters, Éliane and Sophie. Wechsler dedicates this book to his parents, est great grandson, Micah, who all inspire me to enjoy life Morris and Ann, and to his wife, Leora, each of whom has each and every day. Hersh 4 Asthma-chronic obstructive pulmonary disease overlap: A distinct pathophysiological and clinical entity 41 Rakhee K. Levy Index 281 Preface …on opening the cavity of the chest, the lungs diseases” in 2017. Samuel Johnson who had a history However, in this rapidly changing environment of dis- of being “troubled for several years with asthma” (Bailie M. Cited by Peter guidance to the clinician who may become confused with Warren Canadian Respiratory Journal 2009;16:14. Bernstein between obstructive airway diseases on a pathological and Louis-Philippe Boulet clinical basis, in order to develop appropriate manage- Michael E. Joseph’s Healthcare and and Department of Emergency Medicine McMaster University University of Alberta Hamilton, Ontario, Canada Edmonton, Alberta, Canada Amber J. Although considered distinct diseases, overlap in the features of these two conditions is increasingly recognized, making straightforward distinction more challenging. Recent guidelines have attempted to address this prob- symptoms such as wheeze, shortness of breath, lem. Exacerbations and comor- feature in the pathophysiology of both diseases and its fur- bidities contribute to the overall severity in indi- ther measurement in clinical practice. Furthermore, no feature is limitation 9 speci c for only one disease, and there is considerable over- lap between the two diseases. Asthma is by de nition associated with reversible air ow obstruction, although in variant asthma special lished their own criteria but they usually involve the same maneuvers may be necessary to make the obstruction phenotypic characteristics. Patients with asthma whose air ow obstruction sists of the association of compatible symptoms and variable is completely reversible (subset 9) are not considered to air ow limitation (Table 1. Patients with airway obstruction due to in clinical practice, although traditionally considered as dis- diseases with known etiology or speci c pathology, such tinct entities in guidelines. Coexistence of the two obstruc- as cystic brosis or obliterative bronchiolitis (subset 10), tive diseases has been recognized for decades as illustrated are not included in this de nition. Since then, the subject has been extensively Respir Crit Care Med 152(5), S77–121, 1995. In 2012 the respiratory community in Spain was the rst to publish a consensus statement speci - Figure 1. Centrilobular emphysema was found but her history was signifcant for 77 pack years. The symptoms are worse at night, and they increase with cold air and A 72-year-old female presents with intermittent dust exposure. She was diagnosed with asthma at age 5 and has She reports no diurnal variation in her symptoms been treated for this condition ever since. She has She was diagnosed with asthma at age 60 based never smoked nor did she have signifcant passive on a spirometry, which demonstrated a 29% increase smoke exposure as a child. She has no history of smoking ate airfow obstruction without signifcant improve- or passive smoke exposure. She was under one de nition consequently form a heterogeneous pop- ulation, with diverse clinical characteristics, prognosis, and 1. Other features si ed, the imprecision in their de nitions, and the some- of asthma (patterns of symptoms, in ammation, associated times di cult task of making a speci c diagnosis. Given the conditions, risk factors) must be considered to establish a limitations, one question is to be asked: Does making the real overlap diagnosis. Biomed Pap free de nition of airway disease based on the identi cation of Med Fac Univ Palacky Olomouc Czech Repub. Global Strategy for the Diagnosis, Management and vention that he named treatable traits. Available a comorbidity, risk factor, or behavioral problem, contributing at http://www. Standards for the diagnosis and care of patients with is still largely hypothetical. Although the bronchitis in airway diseases in tertiary care clinical acknowledgment of this important subgroup of obstructive practice. However, she also has a history of Global Initiative for Chronic Obstructive Lung Disease childhood asthma and allergic rhinitis. However, the independent e ects of race/ethnicity, poverty, and area of residence are debated. Several other factors may contribute to the risk of developing asthma, including Asthma is a disease of reversible air ow obstruction, bron- changes in diet; physical activity and obesity; infectious disease chial hyperresponsiveness, and underlying airway in am- and microbial exposures, including viral respiratory infections mation. Its presence in children under exposure to antibiotics; environmental factors (exposure to 6 years is frequently a benign condition re ecting smaller indoor irritants including tobacco smoke); psychosocial stress- airways that improves or resolves as the child grows. However, age modi es the e ect of gender on asthma are linked, yet, the prevalence rates vary widely between coun- prevalence. Among adults 18 years and older, females are tries, and the link between atopic sensitization and asthma more likely than males to have asthma. However, the pattern symptoms may be modi ed by other factors such as economic is reversed among children. Interestingly, the to sociodemographic features of the population within a given highest distribution of asthma symptoms was found in high- geographic area remains uncertain. Center for Disease Control and Prevention and National Center for Health Statistics, Editors. One reported marked variations in the prevalence of asthma Routine collection of data on hospital discharges is almost symptoms, with up to een-fold di erences between coun- entirely restricted to high-income countries, limiting the tries. In 2008 adjusted death rates than all other Hispanic subgroups and the condition accounted for an estimated 14. However, based on a better understanding of (persons over the age of 65) is associated with di erent risk the multiple in uences (environmental, clinical, biological, factors, including an increased number of comorbid con- and genetic), which lead to di erences in outcome and/or ditions, which in uence the presentation, diagnosis, and management, there is recent support for de ning additional management. Recent estimates suggest more that 27 15 million people in the United States37 and more that fumes. Lung function growth and decline curves heating in low-income countries and di erences in types during the rst three decades of life are shown. Further variability is related In addition, the presence of multiple comorbidities has a to di erences in the quality of measurement, use of pre- cumulative e ect on mortality. Puerto Rican and non-Hispanic early onset asthma that develops a component of xed air- white adults have a higher prevalence of disease compared ow obstruction. Childhood impairment of ethnic groups but with a similar relative distribution by 42 lung function was a signi cant predictor of abnormal lon- race/ethnicity. Prevalence also varies by urban/rural sta- 43–45 gitudinal patterns of lung-function growth and decline. In their in adults aged 45–54 years and American Indian/Alaska 45 analysis, diagnosis of childhood asthma was associated natives. As our knowledge of the asthma expression in both the family and community clinical phenotypes and underlying mechanisms within context. Center for Disease Control and Prevention focusing on the unique phenotypes that have therapeutic 61,62 and National Center for Health Statistics, Editors. National Management, and Prevention of Chronic Obstructive Asthma Control Program Grantees; July 2013. Asthma and asthma prevalence, health care use, and mortality Wheezing in the rst six years of life. Population Environmental and genetic risk factors and gene-envi- impact of different deﬁnitions of airway obstruction. Epidemiology of chronic between childhood asthma and adult chronic obstruc- mucus hypersecretion and obstructive airways dis- tive pulmonary disease. Lung-function tra- Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease over- jectories leading to chronic obstructive pulmonary lap in the United States. The coexis- Chronic pulmonary obstructive disease among tence of asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary adults—United States, 2011. The wheezing is episodic and occurs during vigorous exercise, or exposure to cigarette smoke or dusty rooms. The boy describes that his “breathing feels tight,” and is accompanied by nonproductive coughing. The patient’s mother and father are lifelong nonsmokers, and there are no sources of indoor air pollutants in the home, such as kerosene heaters, wood-burning stoves, or freplaces. The patient’s mother and father received “health-related genetic risk assessments” through an online commercial genotyping service prior to changes in the regulation of those services in 2013. The mother self-identifes as African American, while her husband self-identifes as Caucasian of central European descent. The patient’s mother has no rel- evant family history of lung disease, while the patient’s father has a strong family history of emphysema and liver disease.
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